The Eastern European Economy in Context: Communism and the Transition

By David Turnock | Go to book overview

6

NATIONAL PROFILES

Balkan countries

ALBANIA

Albania's communist government resisted reform and cast the country into a dangerous state of international isolation after the departure of Soviet and Chinese technicians in 1960 and 1978 respectively (Sandstrom and Sjoberg 1991). Fiercely nationalistic and fearful of foreign domination, Albanians found it hard to reconcile their political instincts with the economic reality of continuing external dependence (Biberaj 1990). With the highest rate of population growth in Europe, Albania had to struggle just to stop the very low living standards falling even further behind the average for Europe. Drought during the late 1980s (through a succession of dry winters) reduced agricultural output and also eroded the effectiveness of hydropower projects, while export performance stagnated: at the time trade was transacted mainly with near neighbours (Bulgaria, Italy, Romania and FRY) along with France, Germany and Poland, exchanging minerals, electricity and agricultural produce for raw materials and capital goods. Until May 1990 the country's constitution officially forbade any sort of foreign investment and even credits were ruled out. However, after Hoxha's death in 1985 the country began to move slowly away from the constitutional position of 1976 and money was borrowed to finance foreign trade deficits, although servicing became a problem with the stagnation of the late 1980s (Hall 1994).


Momentum for revolution

With no sign of economic reform and a lack of external assistance, the outlook for the 1990s was depressing. The plan for 1990 'showed little sign of having been prepared by people with a knowledge of real economies' (Milivojevic 1991, p.7). The fall of N. Ceausescu in Romania sent a shock wave through Albania and activated the country's alienated young people who obtained information through Greek and Italian television broadcasts. There was unrest in Shkoder continuing into the New Year, and other towns (such as Durres, Tirana and Vlore) became involved. The government used

-218-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Eastern European Economy in Context: Communism and the Transition
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables vii
  • Maps viii
  • Abbreviations ix
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • References 10
  • 2 - Eastern Europe Under Communism 12
  • 3 - The Transition 84
  • 4 - Transition to a Market Economy 136
  • 5 - National Profiles 177
  • 6 - National Profiles 218
  • 7 - Restructuring in Agriculture and Industry 261
  • 8 - Prospects for the Regions of Eastern Europe 323
  • Bibliography 361
  • Index 391
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 425

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.