An Historical Study of English: Function, Form, and Change

By Jeremy Smith | Go to book overview

Illustrations

FIGURES
1.1 The levels of language (hierarchical model) 4
1.2 The levels of language (dynamic model) 5
2.1 The interaction of written and spoken modes over time (after Samuels 1972:6) 17
2.2 Evidence for Old English: surviving major texts 18
2.3 Evidence for post-Old English (1100-1250) and Early Middle English (1250-1350): localised and localisable texts (provisional placings; see Laing 1991, 1993) 20
2.4 Survey points (localised and localisable texts) used for the Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English (1986) (after Vol. I, p. 568) 23
2.5 Comparative reconstruction (after Lehmann 1992:143) 25
2.6 Internal reconstruction (after Lehmann 1992:163) 25
2.7 Parallel passages from Cursor Mundi (after Morris 1876) 31
2.8 Constrained variation: a Late Middle English example 35
3.1 Realisations of the vowel-phoneme / / produced by seventy-six different speakers in terms of recorded sound-frequencies (see further Lieberman 1984: Chapter 7) 45
3.2 Trees and waves 51
4.1 Fixity and focus 66
4.2 Focused repertoires of spellings in Middle English (Type I) 71
4.3 Focused repertoires of spellings in Middle English (Type IV) 72
4.4 Reflection of Type IV forms in manuscripts of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales74
5.1 The Great Vowel Shift (traditional model, after Görlach 1991:67) 87
5.2 Main road and river systems, c. 1600 (after Falkus and Gillingham 1981:179) 91
5.3 The Great Vowel Shift in the North (a): pre-Shift 99
5.4 The Great Vowel Shift in the North (b): process of Shift 100
5.5 Competing systems in early-fifteenth-century London 102

-viii-

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An Historical Study of English: Function, Form, and Change
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations viii
  • Plates ix
  • Preface x
  • Acknowledgements xiii
  • Symbols and Signs, Mainly Phonetic xvi
  • Part I 1
  • 1 - Introduction 3
  • 2 - On Evidence 13
  • 3 - Linguistic Evolution 39
  • Part II 53
  • 4 - Transmission I: Change in Writing-System 55
  • 5 - Transmission Ii: Sound-Change 79
  • 6 - Change in the Lexicon 112
  • 7 - Grammatical Change 141
  • Part III 163
  • 8 - Two Varieties in Context 165
  • 9 - Conclusion 194
  • Notes 197
  • Suggestions for Further Reading 201
  • References 207
  • Index 216
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