Science and Soccer

By Thomas Reilly; A. Mark Williams | Go to book overview

2

Functional anatomy

Tracey Howe and Nigel Hanchard

Introduction

The part of the musculoskeletal system involved with movement is called the locomotor system. It includes not only most of the bony skeleton but also the joints and the various soft tissues that form or control them. This chapter aims to introduce the major components of the locomotor system, developing an awareness of how their structure underpins their function, in a way which is relevant to those involved in soccer. These include player, coach, trainer and medical staff alike.

For comprehensive coverage of human anatomy, and definitions of the special terminology used in this context, standard texts such as Williams et al. (1995) and Moore and Dalley (1999) are recommended.


2.1Joints

There are several types of joints, but most are synovial. On the whole, synovial joints allow more movement than other types, and their structural characteristics include articular cartilage, articular capsule and ligaments (Figure 2.1).


2.1.1Articular cartilage

Articular cartilage is a white, glistening substance which covers the articulating bone ends, and comprises bundles of collagen fibres embedded in a matrix. Orientated vertically in the deeper parts of the cartilage, the collagen bundles come to lie more horizontally as they near the surface, and interweave. This serves the dual purpose of presenting a smooth finish to facilitate gliding movements and binding the matrix in place. The matrix itself is largely composed of mutually repellent molecules which resist being pushed together, giving cartilage its characteristic springy resilience.


2.1.2Articular capsule

The articular capsule comprises an outer fibrous capsule lined, on its internal surface, by synovial membrane. The fibrous capsule attaches to the margins of the joint - effectively sealing it - and consists of white fibrous tissue, a dense, tough, pliant tissue predominantly composed of collagen bundles. The synovial membrane secretes slippery synovial fluid into the joint cavity, reducing friction, and facilitating glide between the opposing cartilage surfaces still further.

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Science and Soccer
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • 1 - Introduction to Science and Soccer 1
  • Part 1 - Biology and Soccer 7
  • 2 - Functional Anatomy 9
  • 3 - Fitness Assessment 21
  • 4 - Physiology of Training 47
  • 5 - Motion Analysis and Physiological Demands 59
  • 6 - Nutrition 73
  • 7 - Different Populations 96
  • Part 2 - Biomechanics and Soccer Medicine 107
  • 8 - Biomechanics Applied to Soccer Skills 109
  • References 118
  • 9 - The Biomechanics of Soccer Surfaces and Equipment 120
  • 10 - Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation 136
  • 11 - Psychology and Injury in Soccer 148
  • 12 - Environmental Stress 165
  • Part 3 - Behavioural Science and Soccer 185
  • 13 - Coaching Science and Soccer 187
  • 14 - Skill Acquisition 198
  • 15 - Stress, Performance and Motivation Theory 214
  • References 227
  • 16 - Soccer Violence 230
  • Part 4 - Match Analysis 243
  • 17 - Notational Analysis 245
  • 18 - The Science of Match Analysis 265
  • 19 - Information Technology 276
  • References 283
  • Part 5 - Growth and Adolescence 285
  • 20 - Growth and Maturity Status of Young Soccer Players 287
  • 21 - Identifying Talented Players 307
  • Index 327
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