Science and Soccer

By Thomas Reilly; A. Mark Williams | Go to book overview

5

Motion analysis and physiological demands

Thomas Reilly

Introduction

The physiological demands of soccer play are indicated by the exercise intensities at which the many different activities during match-play are performed. There are implications not only for fitness assessment and selection of players but also for their training regimes. Since the training and competitive schedules of players comprise their occupational roles, there are consequences too for their habitual activities, daily energy requirements and energy expenditures. Finally, there are repercussions for the prevention of injuries as far as possible.

The exercise intensity during competitive soccer can be indicated by the overall distance covered. This represents a global measure of work-rate which can be broken down into the discrete actions of an individual player for a whole game. The actions or activities can be classified according to type, intensity (or quality), duration (or distance) and frequency. The activity may be juxtaposed on a time-base so that the average exercise-to-rest ratios can be calculated. These ratios can then be used in physiological studies designed to represent the demands of soccer and also in conditioning elements of the soccer players' training programmes. These work-rate profiles can be complemented by monitoring physiological responses where possible.

Various aspects of the exercise intensities in soccer are examined in this chapter. Work-rate during play and factors influencing work-rate profiles are considered prior to a review of physiological responses to playing. These are restricted to heart-rate and metabolic measures. The compatibility between the demands of play, training stimuli and fitness measures is addressed.


5.1Motion analysis

In the early applications of motion analysis to professional soccer, it was presumed that work-rate could be expressed as distance covered in a game, since this determines the energy expenditure. Activities were coded according to intensity of movements, the main categories being walking, jogging, cruising, sprinting, whilst other game-related activities such as backing, playing the ball and so on were investigated. The observer utilized a learnt map of pitch markings in conjunction with visual cues around the pitch boundaries and spoke into a tape recorder. The method of monitoring activity was checked for reliability, objectivity and validity (Reilly and Thomas, 1976), and is still considered to be the most appropriate way of monitoring one player per game (Reilly, 1990, 1993, 1994a, 1997; Reilly et al., 2000).

Coded commentary of activities on to a tape recorder by a trained observer has been correlated with measurements taken from video recordings. The latter method entails

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Science and Soccer
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • 1 - Introduction to Science and Soccer 1
  • Part 1 - Biology and Soccer 7
  • 2 - Functional Anatomy 9
  • 3 - Fitness Assessment 21
  • 4 - Physiology of Training 47
  • 5 - Motion Analysis and Physiological Demands 59
  • 6 - Nutrition 73
  • 7 - Different Populations 96
  • Part 2 - Biomechanics and Soccer Medicine 107
  • 8 - Biomechanics Applied to Soccer Skills 109
  • References 118
  • 9 - The Biomechanics of Soccer Surfaces and Equipment 120
  • 10 - Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation 136
  • 11 - Psychology and Injury in Soccer 148
  • 12 - Environmental Stress 165
  • Part 3 - Behavioural Science and Soccer 185
  • 13 - Coaching Science and Soccer 187
  • 14 - Skill Acquisition 198
  • 15 - Stress, Performance and Motivation Theory 214
  • References 227
  • 16 - Soccer Violence 230
  • Part 4 - Match Analysis 243
  • 17 - Notational Analysis 245
  • 18 - The Science of Match Analysis 265
  • 19 - Information Technology 276
  • References 283
  • Part 5 - Growth and Adolescence 285
  • 20 - Growth and Maturity Status of Young Soccer Players 287
  • 21 - Identifying Talented Players 307
  • Index 327
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