Science and Soccer

By Thomas Reilly; A. Mark Williams | Go to book overview

17

Notational analysis

Mike Hughes

Introduction
A considerable amount of effort has been devoted to establishing objective forms of analysis and demonstrating their importance in the coaching process. There are difficulties facing any single individual attempting to analyse and remember objectively the events occurring in complex team games, such as soccer. One of the main solutions to these inherent problems has been to use notational analysis systems. Coaches, scouts and managers have designed and developed systems for gathering information which over the past three decades have been improved by both coaches and sports science researchers, to the point where the design of the systems has become an end in itself. The aim of this chapter is not only to review the data that have been produced, but also assess the major innovations and developments in the systems and to examine some of the practical uses of notation in soccer.
17.1Historical perspective
The earliest recorded form of music notation was conceived in the eleventh century (Hutchinson, 1970; Thornton, 1971), although it did not become established as a uniform system until the eighteenth century. Historical texts give substantial evidence pointing to the emergence of a crude form of dance notation much later, in about the fifteenth century. Thornton (1971) stated that the early attempts at movement notation may well have 'kept step' with the development of dance in society, and as a consequence the early systems were essentially designed to record particular movement patterns as opposed to movement in general. Dance notation actually constituted the 'starting base' for the development of a general movement notation system. Arguably the greatest development in dance notation was the emergence of the system referred to as 'Labanotation' or 'Kinetography-Laban', so-called after its creator, Rudolph Laban in 1948. Laban highlighted three fundamental problems encountered in the formulation of any movement notation system:
1 recording complicated movement accurately;
2 recording this movement in economical and legible form;
3 keeping abreast with continual innovations in movement.

These three fundamental problems left dance in a state of flux, incapable of steady growth for centuries (Hutchinson, 1970). In almost the same way, these problems still beset analysts today.

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Science and Soccer
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • 1 - Introduction to Science and Soccer 1
  • Part 1 - Biology and Soccer 7
  • 2 - Functional Anatomy 9
  • 3 - Fitness Assessment 21
  • 4 - Physiology of Training 47
  • 5 - Motion Analysis and Physiological Demands 59
  • 6 - Nutrition 73
  • 7 - Different Populations 96
  • Part 2 - Biomechanics and Soccer Medicine 107
  • 8 - Biomechanics Applied to Soccer Skills 109
  • References 118
  • 9 - The Biomechanics of Soccer Surfaces and Equipment 120
  • 10 - Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation 136
  • 11 - Psychology and Injury in Soccer 148
  • 12 - Environmental Stress 165
  • Part 3 - Behavioural Science and Soccer 185
  • 13 - Coaching Science and Soccer 187
  • 14 - Skill Acquisition 198
  • 15 - Stress, Performance and Motivation Theory 214
  • References 227
  • 16 - Soccer Violence 230
  • Part 4 - Match Analysis 243
  • 17 - Notational Analysis 245
  • 18 - The Science of Match Analysis 265
  • 19 - Information Technology 276
  • References 283
  • Part 5 - Growth and Adolescence 285
  • 20 - Growth and Maturity Status of Young Soccer Players 287
  • 21 - Identifying Talented Players 307
  • Index 327
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