In this book I intend to develop a unified system analysis of the class-patriarchy relationship. I shall analyse class and patriarchy as part of a single historical process. I shall begin with what I believe was Marx's perception of social reality. For Marx, social reality was a complex network of internal relations, single elements which are only what they are by virtue of their relationship to other elements. 1 For example, neither wage labour nor capital can be defined without reference to each other. The existence of a class of wage labourers can only be understood by reference to a class of capitalists; the social categories of wage labour and capital actually imply each other. It will be my argument that the class-patriarchy relationship for the period of English history covered in this study was of this kind: that the social relationships of class and patriarchy contained each other; that neither would have taken the form it did without the other; that it is impossible to understand class or patriarchy during this period as independent, atomistic entities related only contingently; that class and patriarchy were integral parts of a single historical process. Once this is grasped, it should become clear that questions about primacy and autonomy-questions which have dogged the structural debate about class and patriarchy-are in fact misplaced. An internal relations perspective is very different from 'traditional historical materialism'-a version of Marxism which has been adopted by many since the Second International. 2 In my view, this version of historical materialism-already widely confuted on various other grounds-also fails when Marxism's potential to become a gendered system of analysis is recognised.