Driving Emissions to Zero: Are the Benefits of California's Zero Emission Vehicle Program Worth the Costs?

By Lloyd Dixon; Isaac Porche et al. | Go to book overview

7.
CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

Even though California has made much progress in improving its air quality over the last 30 years, many parts of the state still violate federal ozone standards. The South Coast Air Basin is far short of the emission reductions required to meet these standards. This shortfall motivates CARB's goal of a zero emission fleet and its first step toward this goal, the ZEV program.

This report examines the costs of and the emission reductions from the various vehicle technologies that manufacturers may use to meet ZEV program requirements. In this concluding section, we summarize our key findings, discuss the conclusions we draw from them, and arrive at implications for ZEV policy.


7.1 COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEETING ZEV PROGRAM
REQUIREMENTS

We examined the cost of requiring vehicles to meet progressively tighter emission standards per ton of emissions reduced. We restricted our attention to reductions in non-methane organic gas (NMOG) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, which are the key pollutants that must be reduced if California is to meet air quality standards. We examined the cost per ton of moving from CARB's tightest standards outside the ZEV program (the super low emission vehicle [SULEV] exhaust standard and the near-zero evaporative emission standard) to partial zero emission vehicles (PZEVs) and then from PZEVs to ZEVs. We also examined the cost per ton of moving from PZEVs to gasoline electric hybrid vehicles (GHEVs), vehicles that must meet PZEV exhaust and evaporative emission standards but that produce fewer indirect emissions (from fuel extraction, refining, and distribution) than PZEVs do because of their greater fuel efficiency.

We examined costs during the first five years of the program (2003 through 2007) and when the vehicles are in high-volume production. The high-volume cost estimates are based on designs that appear feasible given what is known about battery and fuel-cell technology. They also take into account the types of production processes that are feasible at high volume. Forecasting technological advances is difficult and becomes more so the farther one looks into the future. We thus think it appropriate to interpret our high-volume estimates as the lowest level to which costs are expected to fall over the next 10 years or so given what is currently known about advanced vehicle technologies and manufacturing processes. As manufacturers gain production experience, costs may drop beyond our volume production predictions, but we do not expect these effects to be large over the next 10 years absent significant technological advances. We

-97-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Driving Emissions to Zero: Are the Benefits of California's Zero Emission Vehicle Program Worth the Costs?
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 139

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.