Reluctant Champions: U.S. Presidential Policy and Strategic Export Controls, Truman, Eisenhower, Bush, and Clinton

By Richard T. Cupitt | Go to book overview

NOTES

* * *


INTRODUCTION
1.
Vladimir Orlov and William C. Potter, “The Mystery of the Sunken Gyros, ” The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 54, 6 (November/December 1998): 34.
2.
Remarks made by Rolf Ekeus on February 12, 1996, at the Carnegie Conference on Nuclear Nonproliferation, Washington, D.C.
3.
Douglas Jehl, “Who Armed Iraq? Answers the West Didn't Want to Hear, ” New York Times, July 18, 1993, p.E5.
4.
Ibid.
5.
Valerie Kuklenski, “Western Firms Supplied Iraq With Chemical Weapons, ” United Press International, October 2, 1990, in Lexis/Nexis.
6.
Ibid.
7.
The Right Honourable Sir Richard Scott, Report of the Inquiry into the Export of Defence Equipment and Dual-Use Goods to Iraq and Related Prosecutions, House of Commons Papers 115, London: HMSO, 1996.
8.
Ironically, this appeared in the Memorandum of Disapproval outlining the reasons why President Bush exercised a pocket veto over HR 4653, the proposed Export Administration Act.
9.
See, for example, U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Export Controls and Nonproliferation Policy, Washington, DC: GPO, 1994.
10.
U.S. Congress, House Commerce, Consumer, and Monetary Affairs Subcommittee, U.S. Government Controls on Sales to Iraq, Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1991, pp.38-39.
11.
See a copy of the unclassified version of NSD 26 in Alan Friedman, Spider's Web: The Secret History of How the White House Illegally Armed Iraq, New York: Bantam Books, 1993, p.321.
12.
U.S. Congress, House Commerce, Consumer, and Monetary Affairs Subcommittee, U.S. Government Controls on Sales to Iraq, pp.336-338.
13.
Ibid.
14.
William E. Burrows and Robert Windrem, Critical Mass: The Dangerous Race for Superweapons in a Fragmenting World, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994, pp.193-199.
15.
See William F. Finan, “Estimate of Direct Economic Costs Associated with U.S. National Security Controls, ” pp. 254-277 in National Academy of Sciences, Balancing the National Interest: U.S. National Security Controls and Global Economic Competition, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1987; and J. David Richardson, Sizing Up U.S. Export Disincentives, Washington, D.C.: Institute of International Economics, 1993.
16.
J. David Richardson, Sizing Up U.S. Export Disincentives.
17.
Peter B. Evans, “Building an Integrative Approach to International and Domestic Politics: Reflections and Projections, ” pp. 397-430 in Peter B. Evans, Harold K. Jacobson, and Robert D. Putnam, Double-Edged Diplomacy: International Bargaining and Domestic Politics, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993, p.400.

-231-

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Reluctant Champions: U.S. Presidential Policy and Strategic Export Controls, Truman, Eisenhower, Bush, and Clinton
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction 1
  • One - Domestic Politics and Export Controls 13
  • Two - Dual-Use Export Controls in Historical Perspective 31
  • Three - The Truman Administration 51
  • Four - The Eisenhower Administration 84
  • Five - The Bush Administration 118
  • Six - The Clinton Administration 158
  • Seven - Conclusion 210
  • Notes 231
  • Index 273
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