Specialist town planning controls
'Specialist planning controls' provides an umbrella term under which we can examine topics dealing with the preservation of the built and natural environment. In urban areas in particular, listed building and conservation area controls seek to protect historic and architecturally significant buildings and areas, whereas urban design seeks to improve the quality of urban fabric when those areas are developed. In rural locations those considerations also apply, but many additional controls seek to ensure the protection of the natural environment for its beauty (i.e. National Parks, Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty or National Scenic Areas) for its flora and fauna (i.e. Sites of Special Scientific Interest, Environmentally Sensitive Areas and Nature Reserves) and for its recreational value to Britain's mostly urban-based population (i.e. Country Parks and an objective of National Parks designation). Other environmental controls applicable to both urban and rural locations are Ancient Monuments, Archaeological Areas and Tree Preservation Orders. Green belt designation applies a multi-faceted approach, seeking to influence land-use issues applicable to both urban areas and rural areas located on the urban fringe (see Table 7.8 for a summary of these policies). This chapter will deal with each of these topics and will be organized as follows:
A building or group of buildings considered of special architectural and historical interest, which are included in a list compiled by the Secretary of State for National Heritage and protected from demolition, alteration or extension without obtaining Listed Building Consent from the local planning authority.