I could not have completed this book, and the PhD upon which it is based, without the advice and assistance of many. I am indebted to the helpful staff of the numerous libraries and archives I visited, in particular the Public Record Office at Kew; Churchill College Archives, Cambridge; the Bodleian Library, Oxford; the British Library of Political and Economic Science; the House of Lords Archives; Cambridge University Library; the National Maritime Library; and the British Library. I am grateful to the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge, for the use of R.A. Butler's papers; the Trustees of the Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, for access to the Liddell Hart papers; and Birmingham University Library for access to the Chamberlain and Avon papers. My thanks are also due to Frank Cass publishers for granting permission to reuse some of the material from my article published in the March 2002 edition of Diplomacy & Statecraft. Crown copyright material in the Public Record Office appears here by permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Parliamentary copyright material from Hansard is reproduced with the authorisation of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office on behalf of Parliament. Quotations from the papers of Admiral Drax, Anthony Eden, Sir Thomas Inskip, Lord Robert Cecil and Harold Macmillan appear here by kind permission of H.W. Drax, Lady Avon, Viscount Caldecote, Professor Lambton and the Trustees of the H.M. Book Trust respectively. Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders, but if any have been inadvertently overlooked, I can only offer my apologies and hope that the owner will get in touch, so that I can make the necessary corrections in any future editions. The illustrations on the jacket are provided by, and reproduced with the consent of, Popperfoto.
On a more personal note, I must pay special tribute to my tutors, friends, and family. First, I would like to thank Eric Cobb, my history teacher at Wembley High School. His passion for history and his