Decision-Making in Environmental Health: From Evidence to Action

By C. Corvalán; D. Briggs et al. | Go to book overview
Chapter 3*
THE NEED FOR INFORMATION: ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INDICATORS

3.1Introduction
It has been recognised that in many parts of the developing world the burden of disease attributed to environmental factors is large (WHO, 1997). Even in the developed world (and focusing for simplicity on the physical environment) new pollutants are emerging which pose threats to human health, and for which the health burden estimates are unknown or hard to measure. Against this background, there is clearly an urgent need for action to reduce the environmental health burden. This can be achieved, for example, through:
▪ Technological innovation to develop new, cleaner and more sustainable methods of production.
▪ Demand control to reduce the pressures from consumption and resource use.
▪ Environmental improvement to reduce the hazards involved, especially in those areas where human exposure may occur.
▪ Education and awareness raising to help individuals better appreciate the environmental risks to which they are exposed, and the personal opportunities which exist for risk avoidance and reduction.
▪ Therapeutic interventions to minimise the health impact on those already affected.
For any given environmental health problem, actions need to be taken through all the measures specified above. Certainly, technological innovations are likely to have a sustained, longer-term impact, but in the short-term public education and even therapeutic actions are also needed. All of these actions are potentially costly and therefore they all depend on the availability of reliable information. Information may thus be needed for the following (Briggs, 1995):
▪ To help identify and prioritise the problems which exist.
▪ To inform the numerous groups of stakeholders involved.
▪ To provide a rational framework for discussion and debate.
▪ To define, evaluate and compare the actions which might be taken.

*This chapter was prepared by C. Corvalán, D. Briggs and T. Kjellström

-25-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Decision-Making in Environmental Health: From Evidence to Action
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 278

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.