primarily for exploratory reasons and on the basis of special surveys). Routine data are often not considered appropriate for research purposes and thus they are either ignored or supplemented with additional data collection. There is, however, considerable value in linking routine environmental and health data at the local level specifically to raise local awareness about environmental health issues and to support decision-making. For the long term, efforts to improve routine data gathering are needed to be given immediate priority for this purpose. Where relevant data do not exist, rapid survey methods need to be applied. In many areas, this will require significant capacity-building to help design appropriate monitoring and information gathering systems, to help construct the relevant infrastructure (including monitoring, data analysis, mapping and reporting systems) and to help train personnel. These and other requirements involved in full implementation of the HEADLAMP process are discussed in the next chapter.