Western Music and Its Others: Difference, Representation, and Appropriation in Music

By Georgina Born; David Hesmondhalgh | Go to book overview

many of them rebuilt after World War II, have endeavored to publish volumes of ḥazzanut, representing the past and connecting them to a possible future. 58 In these ways the ḥazzanut depends on the public sphere, indeed the spaces in which the New Europe struggles to determine a new selfness. This new selfness is as dependent on the imagination of others as it was prior to World War II. The competition for public spaces increases as new and old internal others—Turkish guest workers, Roma and Sinti, refugees from Southeastern Europe, to name just the most obvious—compete for public recognition and the rights that should accrue to them as residents of Europe . In much of Europe, however, Jewish communities do not compete for these spaces. Composing the cantorate, accordingly, has ceased. The otherness the cantorate sought to transform has, as yet, found no new place in the various “Europes” constructed after World War II. If the song of the cantor again fills the public spaces of the New Europe, it is as mystical speech, the music from some other time and place.


NOTES

Research for this essay initially took place in Central Europe during 1990–91, and I should like to thank the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for their generous support of that research, with a Summer Stipend and Forschungsstipendium, respectively. During 1995–96 I conducted further, intensive research in Vienna when serving as Fulbright Guest Professor at the University of Vienna. I should like to thank the Council for International Exchange of Scholars for that teaching opportunity, which allowed me to offer three courses on Jewish music. To my Vienna students, who ceaselessly stimulated my thinking, I owe a special debt of thanks.

1
K. H. Köhler and G. Herre, eds., Ludwig van Beethovens Konversationshefte, vol. 7 (Leipzig, 1978), 132. The epigraph is to be found on page 43b of Beethoven's conversation book from 22 January to early February 1825; cited in ibid., 130.
2
Speculations about possible sketches for this work or appearances of themes (e.g., from the “Kol Nidre”) appear in Hanoch Avenary, Kantor Salomon Sulzer und seine Zeit: Eine Dokumentation (Sigmaringen: Jan Thorbecke Verlag, 1985).
3
The term Stadttempel literally means “city temple, ” both nominal components signalling a recognition of a more sweeping presence of the synagogue in the public sphere of Vienna. The Stadttempel consolidated the polity of the Vienna Jewish community, eventually becoming the center of the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde (IKG), which increasingly oversaw the public affairs of the Jewish community (e.g., the financial affairs or maintenance of cemeteries). Diversity by no means disappeared in the Jewish community—Orthodox and Sephardic communities, at least for several decades, retained their independence—but the consolidation of authority through the Stadttempel and its location in the First District dramatically resituated the Jewish community onto Vienna's modern cityscape.
4
The claim that the other calibrates its world outside of time, which is to say, outside of history and therefore without civilization, has been essential not only to

-207-

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Western Music and Its Others: Difference, Representation, and Appropriation in Music
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction - On Difference, Representation, and Appropriation in Music 1
  • Notes 47
  • Musical Belongings - Western Music and Its Low-Other 59
  • Notes 78
  • Race, Orientalism, and Distinction in the Wake of the “yellow Peril” 86
  • Notes 110
  • Bartók, the Gypsies, and Hybridity in Music 119
  • Notes 137
  • Modernism, Deception, and Musical Others: Los Angeles Circa 1940 143
  • Notes 160
  • Experimental Oriental - New Music and Other Others 163
  • Notes 183
  • Composing the Cantorate - Westernizing Europe's Other Within 187
  • Notes 207
  • East, West, and Arabesk 213
  • Notes 229
  • Scoring the Indian - Music in the Liberal Western 234
  • Notes 251
  • The Poetics and Politics of Pygmy Pop 254
  • Discography 275
  • Notes 276
  • International Times - Fusions, Exoticism, and Antiracism in Electronic Dance Music 280
  • Notes 301
  • The Discourse of World Music 305
  • Notes 320
  • Contributors 323
  • Index 327
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