Western Music and Its Others: Difference, Representation, and Appropriation in Music

By Georgina Born; David Hesmondhalgh | Go to book overview

capitalist interests at the expense of people, and ethical relativism. Whereas the prewar Indian was an obstacle to overcome, the postwar Indian has emerged as the ideal American. As we have seen, film music has responded to this changing repository of cultural meanings in a number of ways. For the moment, it seems, the prettiest music belongs to the Indian.


NOTES
1
“Throughout the twentieth century, popular western novels by Zane Grey, Ernest Haycox, Max Brand, Luke Short, and Louis L'Amour have sold hundreds of millions of copies…. Western radio shows in the thirties and forties were followed by TV shows in the fifties and sixties. In 1959 there were no fewer than thirty-five Westerns running concurrently on television, and out of the top ten programs eight were Westerns.” Jane Tompkins, West of Everything: The Inner Life of Westerns (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 5.
2
Philip French, “The Indian in the Western Movie, ” originally in Art in America 60 (July-August 1972), reprinted in The Pretend Indian: Images of Native Americans in the Movies, ed. Gretchen Bataille and Charles Silet (Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1980), 99.
3
A few examples among many are the pop song “Running Bear” (1960), the 1960s TV cartoon song “Powwow, the Indian Boy, ” the Hamm's Beer publicity campaign of the 1980s, the motif for the Apaches in Stagecoach (1939), or Max Steiner's motifs for the Sioux in They Died with Their Boots On (1942) and for the Seminoles in Key Largo (1949).
4
Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales, five novels written between the 1820s and 1841 (including The Last of the Mohicans and The Deerslayer), and Longfellow's epic poem The Song of Hiawatha (1855) are perhaps the best-known embodiments of this image.
5
Surely the movies contain other Indian types, but these are individual characters : the town drunk, the comical Indian (e.g., the squaw in The Searchers), the old sage, the sidekick (e.g., the Lone Ranger's Tonto).
6
Michael V. Pisani, “'I'm an Indian Too': Creating Native American Identities in Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Music, ” in The Exotic in Western Music, ed. Jonathan Bellman (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998), 218–57.
7
Among these composers are Charles Wakefield Cadman, Charles Sanford Skilton , Henry Gilbert, and Amy Beach.
8
See his article “Music in America, ” Harper's, February 1895, 428–34, reprinted in Dvoşák in America, 1892–1895, ed. John C. Tibbetts (Portland, Ore.: Amadeus Press, 1993), 370–80.
9
Fletcher, an active voice for Indian culture in the late nineteenth century, collaborated with an Omaha Indian, Francis La Flesche, in collecting songs among Plains Indians. Her published collections and studies of 1893 and 1900 (in addition to transcriptions by others such as the musicologist Theodore Baker) were invaluable resources for Indianist composers. Fletcher's songs were transcribed and harmonized with hymnlike piano accompaniments by music historian and theorist John C. Fillmore , who elsewhere wrote “how monophonic Indian music could be harmonized and made more palatable to cultured tastes” (Pisani, “'I'm an Indian Too,'” 242).

-251-

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Western Music and Its Others: Difference, Representation, and Appropriation in Music
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction - On Difference, Representation, and Appropriation in Music 1
  • Notes 47
  • Musical Belongings - Western Music and Its Low-Other 59
  • Notes 78
  • Race, Orientalism, and Distinction in the Wake of the “yellow Peril” 86
  • Notes 110
  • Bartók, the Gypsies, and Hybridity in Music 119
  • Notes 137
  • Modernism, Deception, and Musical Others: Los Angeles Circa 1940 143
  • Notes 160
  • Experimental Oriental - New Music and Other Others 163
  • Notes 183
  • Composing the Cantorate - Westernizing Europe's Other Within 187
  • Notes 207
  • East, West, and Arabesk 213
  • Notes 229
  • Scoring the Indian - Music in the Liberal Western 234
  • Notes 251
  • The Poetics and Politics of Pygmy Pop 254
  • Discography 275
  • Notes 276
  • International Times - Fusions, Exoticism, and Antiracism in Electronic Dance Music 280
  • Notes 301
  • The Discourse of World Music 305
  • Notes 320
  • Contributors 323
  • Index 327
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