Counseling Techniques: Improving Relationships with Others, Ourselves, Our Families, and Our Environment

By Rosemary A. Thompson | Go to book overview

Chapter 5

Nonverbal and Metaphorical Techniques

We respond to gestures with an extreme alertness and,
one might almost say, in accordance with an elaborate
and secret code that is written nowhere, known by none,
and understood by all.

Edward Sapir,
Communication, Encylopedia of
the Social Sciences, 1931, pp. 78-81

Nonverbal communication can be defined as all messages other than words that people exchange (DeVito & Hecht, 1990). Nonverbal messages are used to send three primary meanings: immediacy, power, and responsiveness (Mehrabian, 1971). We communicate about 60% of our meaning nonverbally. Many researchers maintain that another person's actual words contribute only 7% to the impression of being liked or disliked, while voice cues contribute 38% and facial cues contribute 55%. Nonverbal messages are usually more believable than verbal messages. When verbal and nonverbal messages contradict, most adults in the United States believe the nonverbal message. Millions of dollars are spent annually to create impressions or special images. Individuals strive to hide negative feelings and disguise bad moods while spending millions of dollars on medication and cosmetic surgery.

In addition, individuals often fake their real attitudes to create the impression that what they feel is appropriate for the situation. For example, many Americans become uncomfortable with periods of silence; in business or social situations, if a gap occurs they will quickly try to fill it with conversation. There are many different channels of nonverbal communication: facial expressions, the clues in our voices (vocal paralanguage), tactile communication (haptics), body movements (kinesics), spatial communication (proxemics and territoriality), and time (chronemics). The American slogans “time is money, ” “there is no time like the

-97-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Counseling Techniques: Improving Relationships with Others, Ourselves, Our Families, and Our Environment
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 478

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.