In writing this book I am enormously grateful to the following people. To Dr David Sweet, my doctoral supervisor at Durham University. To Drs Rebecca Reader, Imogen Anderson, Jo Storey and other members of the Durham University History Department. To Dr Henry Cowper of Edinburgh for invaluable advice and support when needed. To Northumberland County Library in Morpeth and Durham University Library for supplying materials in the early stages. To the staff of Cambridge University Library, the National Library of Scotland in Edinburgh, the Mitchell Library in Sydney, Australia, the India Office, the Public Records Office at Kew and Colindale Newspaper Library in London for their help. Special thanks are due to Norman Cameron (secretary) and members of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs for their help and for permission to use the photograph of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama from their archives.
Finally, this book would not have been possible without the unwavering support and encouragement of my family. To Steve, who supplied advice and editorial support, and to Len, who supplied advice, editorial support and maps.