time, the primary manipulable dimension is the environment. Thus, we need to continue to develop, evaluate, and apply well-documented educational, psychosocial, and therapeutic treatments. However, although there are many variations and causes of DLDs, there is likely a genetic component to almost all of them. At some point in the future, many of these genetic components will be known. Until then disorders such as FXS provide a fruitful area of research for helping us identify gene-environment-behavior relationships. We can explore ways to maximize treatment outcomes by incorporating new knowledge gained from a holistic and synergistic approach as we address DLDs.
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