# Empirical Direction in Design and Analysis

By Norman H. Anderson | Go to book overview

EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 10
Please do all calculations using only hand calculator. This will help you understand the basic proportionality rule for getting expected values.1. The discussion of the polio data implies that a statsig X2 is not adequate evidence that the vaccine was effective. Why not? What general principle does this illustrate?2. In the polio experiment:
 a. Why should a preliminary power calculation be made? b. What criticism might be made of the N in this experiment? c. By analogy to Section 4.3 on power for Anova, guess what item of information is needed for a power calculation for chi-square.
3. In one of the final tests of Clever Hans, the mathematical horse of Chapter 8, Hans was instructed to perform a simple arithmetic task, such as adding two numbers. On each trial, Mr. von Osten would whisper one of the numbers in Hans' ear, following which Professor Pfungst would whisper the other number. On some of these trials, one or both men knew the answer; on these trials, Hans got 29 right and 2 wrong. On other trials, neither man knew the answer; on these trials, Hans got 3 right and 28 wrong (Pfungst, 1965, p. 37.)
 a. What is the null hypothesis in this 2 × 2 contingency table? b. Is chi-square really applicable with these small frequencies of 2 and 3? c. Show that X2 = 43.66. d. Show that the 95% confidenceinterval is.84 ±.14. e. Is this chi-square test really needed?

4. In the field study of smoking prevention in the Appendix to Chapter 3, 19%, 24%, and 27% of the cases in the three treatment conditions had not smoked at the three-month mark. Assume each group had exactly 1000 subjects. Show that X2 = 18.26.

5. A clinical trial (= experiment) extending over several years showed that breast cancer was developed by 216 of 6707 women on placebo control, and by 115 of 6681 women on the drug tamoxifen. Should the Food and Drug Administration approve tamoxifen for prescription by doctors?

6. In a field experiment in a nursing home, one group of residents received a treatment that emphasized their responsibility to make their own choices and control their own lives. A comparison group received a treatment that emphasized the responsibility of the staff to care for them and make them happy

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Empirical Direction in Design and Analysis

• Title Page iii
• Dedication v
• Foreword vi
• Contents vii
• Preface xvi
• Chapter 1 - Scientific Inference 1
• Preface 30
• Chapter 2 - Statistical Inference 31
• How to Do Exercises 54
• Exercises for Chapter 2 54
• Preface 58
• Chapter 3 - Elements of Analysis of Variance I 59
• Notes 75
• Appendix: How to Randomize 77
• Exercises for Chapter 3 84
• Preface 90
• Chapter 4 - Elements of Analysis of Variance II 91
• Notes 111
• Exercises for Chapter 4 113
• Preface 118
• Chapter 5 - Factorial Design 119
• Notes 145
• Appendix: Hand Calculation for Factorial Design 148
• Exercises for Chapter 5 151
• Preface 158
• Chapter 6 - Repeated Measures Design 159
• Notes 177
• Exercises for Chapter 6 181
• Preface 188
• Chapter 7 - Understanding Interactions 189
• Notes 209
• Exercises for Chapter 7 214
• Preface 218
• Chapter 8 - Confounding 219
• Notes 250
• Preface 258
• Chapter 9 - Regression and Correlation 259
• Notes 280
• Exercises for Chapter 9 282
• Preface 286
• Chapter 10 - Frequency Data and Chi-Square 287
• Notes 300
• Exercises for Chapter 10 302
• Preface 306
• Chapter 11 - Single Subject Design 307
• Notes 338
• Exercises for Chapter 11 345
• Preface 350
• Chapter 12 - Nonnormal Data and Unequal Variance 351
• Notes 373
• Exercises for Chapter 12 378
• Preface 382
• Chapter 13 - Analysis of Covariance 383
• Notes 395
• Exercises for Chapter 13 397
• Preface 400
• Chapter 14 - Design Topics I 401
• Notes 431
• Exercises for Chapter 14 437
• Preface 442
• Chapter 15 - Design Topics II 443
• Notes 475
• Exercises for Chapter 15 481
• Preface 484
• Chapter 16 - Multiple Regression 485
• Notes 514
• Exercises for Chapter 16 520
• Preface 524
• Chapter 17 - Multiple Comparisons 525
• Notes 546
• Exercises for Chapter 17 548
• Preface 550
• Chapter 18 - Sundry Topics 551
• Notes 589
• Exercises for Chapter 18 596
• Preface 602
• Chapter 19 - Foundations of Statistics 603
• Notes 637
• Preface 646
• Chapter 20 - Mathematical Models for Process Analysis 647
• Notes 677
• Exercises for Chapter 20 681
• Preface 688
• Chapter 21 - Toward Unified Theory 689
• Notes 729
• Exercises for Chapter 21 742
• Preface 750
• Chapter 22 - Principles and Tactics of Writing Papers 751
• Notes 761
• Preface 764
• Chapter 23 - Lifelong Learning 765
• Notes 780
• Preface 782
• Chapter 0 - Basic Statistical Concepts 783
• Notes 803
• Exercises for Chapter 0 805
• Statistical Tables 808
• References 820
• Author Index 847
• Subject Index 854
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