|•||Cognitive development has been placed in a new perspective through revealing impressive cognitive capabilities in young children, qualitatively different from those of Piagetian theory (Figure 20.1, page 651).|
|•||Meaning invariance is a fundamental result, one that unifies diverse areas from person cognition to psycholinguistics (Figure 20.2, page 652).|
|•||In psychophysics, the addition model pinned down the elusive psychophysical law and also provided capability for true measurement of conscious and nonconscious sensation (Figure 20.3, page 653).|
As these three examples illustrate, the concepts and methods of Anova–regression given in previous chapters turn out to be quite adaptable for studying substantive models of psychological process.
The model from signal detection theory resolved a general bias problem in choice decision tasks. Whereas previous approaches sought to minimize bias through experimental procedure, signal detection theory instead incorporated the bias in a mathematical model. This model could factor out the bias and even measure it. Initially applied to sensory psychophysics, this detection model provided a clear conceptual analysis of the threshold concept, revealed its inadequacy, and replaced it. This detection analysis has been extended to memory and other cognitive tasks, providing sensory–cognitive unification.
A new approach to signal detection is suggested, based on information integration. Algebraic structure of integration models becomes the base, not the statistical variability structure on which signal detection theory rests. This algebraic base emphasizes the use of continuous response measures, which have certain advantages over the discrete choice responses of signal detection theory. Of special interest is capability for analyzing suprathreshold data, which are outside the scope of detection theory.