CULTURE VERSUS CITIZENSHIP
THE CHALLENGE OF RACIALIZED CITIZENSHIP
IN THE UNITED STATES
America Never was America to me … America The land that's not been yet But yet must be.
—Langston Hughes (Hughes & Bontemps, 1970, pp. 193, 195)
ANYONE WHO TRAVELS across the United States will be impressed by its incredible topographical and cultural diversity. From the flat plains of Nebraska to the majestic mountains of Colorado, from the steamy hot Mississippi Delta, to the frozen tundra of Alaska, from the densely packed Manhattan Island of New York City to the wide-open spaces of North Dakota, the United States is a complex and multifaceted land. The United States is simultaneously a prototype for difference and remarkably similar in so many other ways. From one city to another, travelers will see the