and support for a strong hand to impose order and economic progress
without debate. A fragile civil society in South Africa is no guarantee that
democracy will prevail in a crisis when even Black and White business
might side with the stability and predictability that a more authoritarian
order promises. Despite an often contrary public curriculum, it can only
be hoped that a deeper democracy education for active citizenship of a
new generation will preserve the noble ideals of one of the most inspiring
constitutions in the world.
Legalized racial classifications require the use of constructed racial labels in
this analysis. Even in the post-apartheid state, the old race categorizations
are officially retained, in order to measure progress toward transformation
(greater representativity) through affirmative action policies, quite apart
from the legacies of continuing varied identities, associated with the phony
categories. The common label of African for the Black majority does not
preclude that the members of the other groups are also African in the political
sense of citizens belonging to the African continent as their only home
and origin. In contrast to the Middle East, all parties in South Africa,
including the Pan Africanist Congress, have accepted this status of original
“settlers.” Therefore, not all Africans are Black, and not all Blacks are
Africans. It should also be noted that since the rise of Biko's Black Consciousness
movement in the late 1960s, Black had become a proud political
term, comprising politically conscious members of all three disenfranchised
groups, including Indians and Coloreds. Their despised opposite was a
The short-sighted admonition unfortunately associates affirmative action
with failure and disregard for merit. In the United States, affirmative action
was never applied to the sports realm, because abundant Black talents made
it superfluous and almost suggested preferential promotion for non-Black
athletes if representativity is the main criteria for the selection of a national
team. However, sport as a major tool of nation building has a crucial
significance in the divided society of South Africa.
Adam, H., Van Zyl Slabbert, F., & Moodley, K. (1997). Comrades in business:
Post-liberation politics in South Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Tafelberg.
ANC Stance on AIDS. (March 21, 2002). Cape Times, p. 1.