regarded as normal in a state. The cohesion can then be found in the common knowledge of the necessity to find a way of living together.
Citizenship education faces new questions and tasks in a Germany that is nowadays characterized by ethnic diversity and multiculturalism. Important tasks have to be taken into consideration, such as finding a cohesive state model and the establishment of a new “we” that includes migrants instead of differentiating between “them” and “us.” It has been shown that citizenship can gain from multicultural education by developing a new multicultural approach that will eventually lead into a multicultural citizenship education as the necessary concept for multicultural states. As integration is a key concept in the political discourse, it has to be reflected in citizenship education as well as in multicultural education. To help students cope with the diversity and pluralism of belonging, it is without doubt necessary to deal with the multiple identity concept and to integrate it into citizenship education.
None of the approaches discussed here can or will comprise one single concept for the future. All of them can help develop curricula and concepts of multicultural citizenship education in an ethnically diverse society such as Germany. Comparative studies and international research will add to this aim.
Allemann-Ghionda, C. (2001). Sociocultural and linguistic diversity, educational theory, and the consequences for teacher education: A comparative perspective. In C. A. Grant & J. L. Lei (Eds.), Global constructions of multicultural education: Theories and realities (pp. 1–26). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.