Madder Red: A History of Luxury and Trade : Plant Dyes and Pigments in World Commerce and Art

By Robert Chenciner | Go to book overview

13

Fashionable prices

International slumps & product developments

THERE WERE AT LEAST six booms and slumps in the price of madder from the 17th century interwoven with the growth of international mercantilism, until the final slump in 1873 with the introduction of synthetic alizarin. Records are more complete from the 1800s and Shtorkh's Russian figures give an indication of the international market.

The causes of slumps were wars, overproduction of madder, interruptions in the supply of cotton, fashion change and technical change. These causes were frequently combined. To simplify the reasons, the main slumps were in 1631 caused by the English Civil War and the Thirty Years War from 1618 to 1648; in 1671 when the imported indiennes craze was at its height, and c. 1750 when European fashions replaced Indian prints; and the Seven Years War in Europe c. 1745. There was an intermittent depression from 1765 to 1810. At the beginning of this period overproduction of madder was caused by French government encouragement and good prices. 1 Later there was the French economic slump which led to the French Revolution, and the prolonged disruption caused by the Napoleonic Wars. Around 1855 the Crimean War affected manufacturing and about 1860 the American Civil War cut cotton supplies.

There were several Indian cotton slumps especially c. 1750. In addition, great famines affected Indian textile producing regions when thousands of people died in 1630-1 and 1647. Indian wars disturbed production in 1565, 1712, 1725, 1741 and 1755 when a Dutch factor estimated that 400,000 people were killed in Bengal and Bihar. Extortion by local rulers forced whole weaving communities to move. 2 Finally British imperial trade policy used India for its own purposes. Indian textile production, even when under British ownership, was dropped for the more attractive prospect of industrialised production in England combined with a captive market in India.

It may well be that wars increased demand for uniforms and tents, that trade frequently continued throughout wars (for example Ottoman-Venetian trade) and that wars were localised. On balance, the destruction caused by wars and their cost, with resulting disrupted supplies, decreased demand for

-232-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Madder Red: A History of Luxury and Trade : Plant Dyes and Pigments in World Commerce and Art
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 384

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.