Science and Skiing

By E.Müller; H. Schwameder et al. | Go to book overview

ground reaction force was determined and compared with experimental results obtained by EMED insoles. The agreement between both techniques is surprisingly good (see Fig. 5). The difference could be explained by neglecting lift and damping and by a systematical error of EMED insoles. The selected movement was nearly ideal for performing an inverse dynamic analysis. The calibration points could be placed near to the path of the ski-jumper. Hence, it was possible to attain two goals simultaneously, a large image of the ski-jumper and at least three calibration points on each frame. Otherwise, the errors in the kinematic data would be larger. It was demonstrated, that data smoothing is crucial. The film rate of 50 Hertz was sufficently high to resolve the relatively slow motion of the ski-jumper with respect to his center of gravity. One can expect that the results remain valid under more difficult conditions (faster movements, smaller images of the test person, …) if the film rate is sufficiently high.


6References
1.
Baumann, W. (1979) The Biomechanical Study of Ski-Jumping. Proceedings of International Symposium of Science in Skiing, Zao (Japan), pp. 70-95
2.
Clauser, C.E. et al. (1969) Weight, volume, and center of mass of segments of the human body. (AMRL-TR-69-70) Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio
3.
Drenk, V. (1994) Bildmeßverfahren für schwenk- und neigbare sowie in der Brennweite variierbare Kameras. Schriftenreihe zur angewandten Trainingswissenschaft (ed. IAT), 1(1): 130-142
4.
Haug, E.J. (1989) Computer Aided Kinematics and Dynamics of Mechanical Systems. Volume I: Basic Methods, Allyn and Bacon, Boston
5.
Matlab, Version 4.2 (1994) The Math Works, Inc., Natick, MA
6.
Müller, W. (1996) Institut für Medizinische Physik und Biophysik, Graz, Austria, Private communication
7.
Nachbauer, W. et al. (1996) A Video Technique for Obtaining 3-D Coordinates in Alpine Skiing. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, Vol. 12, pp. 104-115
8.
Sägesser, A. et al. (1981) Force measuring system for the take-off in ski jumping. Biomechanics VII-B (ed. A. Morecki et al.), Baltimore, pp. 478-482
9.
Schwameder, H. and Müller, E. (1995), Biomechanische Beschreibung

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