Principle architect of Russian economic policy from January 1996-March 1997. Vladimir Kadannikov was appointed deputy prime minister by President Boris Yeltsin to replace free-market advocate Anatoly B. Chubais. Chubais was forced out by Yeltsin in the aftermath of the strong Communist showing in the December 1995 parliamentary election. Yeltsin sought to distance himself from unpopular economic measures in an effort to shore up his chances in the June 1996 presidential election.
Kadannikov, a supporter of government protection for Russian industry, worked his way up from engineer to head of Avtovaz, Russia's largest producer of automobiles, based in Togliatti. The notoriously inefficient Avtovaz, which employed 100,000 workers, experienced severe economic difficulties. There was little demand for its automobiles abroad and the internal market was weakened by the availability of Western models for those with money and the prohibitive cost of automobiles for most Russians, who were growing poorer. Kadannikov has been denigrated as a Soviet-style manager, more supportive of restricting foreign competition than of introducing restructuring. His colleague Oleg N. Soskovets, first deputy prime minister, had already attacked the introduction of Western-style market reforms as inappropriate and mistaken.
Kadannikov's appointment further signaled a shift by Yeltsin to appease the many Russians disaffected by the effects of economic shock therapy. However, as governmental debt rose dramatically and the Russian standard of living continued to decline, Yeltsin in March 1997 ousted Kadannikov and reappointed Chubais first deputy prime minister and minister of finance. Kadannikov returned to Avtovaz as director.
SEE ALSO Chubais, Anatoly
Hungarian Communist politician, leader of Hungary under various titles from 1956 to 1988. János Kádár had little formal education. He joined a labor union and the illegal Communist movement in his teens, and served a prison term from 1933 to 1935. He emerged as the leader of the illegal underground Hungarian Communists Party in 1943. In the postwar years he was pushed into the background by Communist leaders who had returned from the Soviet Union (Mátyás Rákosi, Ernö Gerö, Mihály Farkas), where they had waited out World War II, but he was minister of the interior from 1948 to 1950 and played a dubious role in the show trial and execution of prominent Communist leader László Rajk in 1949. Kádár was arrested in 1951 and the next year given a life sentence for “crimes” committed against the Communist Party. He was released in 1954 and started to rise in the party hierarchy. On October 25, 1956, he succeeded Ernö Gerö as secretary-general of the Hungarian Workers' Party (MDP), as the Communist Party had been named since 1948, and joined the government formed by Imre Nagy during the revolution of that year. However, Kádár ultimately turned against it, left Budapest, and invited the Soviets to “restore socialism” and put an end to the “counterrevolution.” He returned to Hungary with the invading Soviet troops and was installed by the Soviet leader