Former Soviet political figure. Aleksander Nikolaevich Yakovlev was shunted off to the embassy in Canada in 1973 after he published an article criticizing Russian chauvinism and the existence of antisemitism among some of the party's leadership. He served as Soviet ambassador to Canada from 1973 to 1983. He was appointed to the Central Committee of the Communist Party by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985, and in 1986 joined the secretariat of the Central Committee. In 1987 he was appointed to the Politburo where as head of the propaganda department he served as a guiding force in the processes of glasnost and perestroika. For his fervent promotion of reform he was attacked with increasing intensity by conservatives. Yakolev was ousted from the politburo and from the party itself two days before the attempted coup of August 19, 1991. Following the coup, though, he served as an advisor to Gorbachev, and allied himself with the democratic opposition.
Vice-president of the Soviet Union (1990-91) and a leader of the August 19, 1991, attempted coup against Mikhail Gorbachev. Gennadi Yanayev was born in 1937. After studying law and agriculture he worked in the Communist Party controlled labor movement of the USSR and became the head of the Central Council of Trade Unions. In 1989 he was elected to the Congress of People's deputies. He was made a member of the Central Committee and the politburo of the Communist Party. In 1990 Gorbachev, to appease hard-liners, proposed Yanayev to the Congress of People's Deputies as his candidate for vice-president of the USSR. Yanayev was fearful that the new Union Treaty would lead to the collapse of the Soviet Union and undermine communism.
On August 19, 1991, Yanayev, Valentin Pavlov, the premier, Vladimir Kruchkov, head of the KGB, Boris Pugo, minister of the interior, Dimitri Yazov, the minister of defense, Anatoly Lukyanov, the leader of the Soviet parliament, Gen. Valentin Varennikov, the deputy defense minister and commander of Soviet ground forces, and Valery Boldin, the head of Gorbachev's administrative apparatus in the Communist Party, attempted a coup. They declared themselves the State Committee for the State of Emergency and announced that Yanayev was assuming the powers of the presidency “in connection with Mikhail Gorbachev's inability for reasons of health, to carry out his duties as president of the USSR.” With the failure of the coup Yanayev was arrested. The trial of Yanayev and the others was postponed in May 1993 and, following the election of the communist and nationalist dominated Duma in December, Yanayev and the others were given amnesty.
SEE ALSO Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Chechen political figure, poet, and writer. In 1989, Yandarbiyev became the chairman of Consent-an organization dedicated to the empowerment of the Chechens, which gave rise to the “Vaynakh” Democratic Party in May 1990. Yandarbiyev became chairman of this nationalist new party that advocated the withdrawal of Chechnya from the Russian Federation and the Soviet Union. It called upon Chechens to boycott all Russian elections, including the March 1991 referendum on the
Yandarbiyev, Zelimkhan Abdulmuslimovich