General index

a
A Grammatical Reading Class Book235 -6
Aberdeenshire 23
accents see class, pronunciation, RP
address, language of 64, 83, 105, 210
advertising English 90
Aelfric 20, 220
affrication 129, 132, 135
Africa 9, 182, 184, 199, 201, 204, 210, 212, 213 ;
see also East Africa, Nigeria, etc.
African English 206, 208, 210 ;
languages 184, 188, 206, 211 ;
words in 206, 210, 11 ;
writers 210, 11
Afrikaans 187, 192, 214
Aire, river 223
Alfred, King 8, 22, 24, 47, 219
allophones see phoneme
alphabet 35 -6;
see also runes, spelling
America:
settlers in 186, 187, 189, 196 -7;
see also USA
American English:
Academy 191, 195 ;
attitudes to 56, 189, 195, 198 -9;
codification 191, 198, 240 ;
development 161, 188 -9;
'General American' 198 ;
influence 182, 188, 190, 191, 199, 209, 212 ;
pronunciation 138, 140, 142, 191, 197, 200 ;
regional variations 191, 197, 199 ;
spelling 188, 209, 240 ;
words 186, 188, 191, 195, 196, 197, 198, 209, 240 ;
see also Black American, USA
analogy 103
Ancrene Wisse222 -3
Anglo-Saxon (Old English) dialects 19, 21, 27, 102, 113, 154, 218, 20, 223 ;
grammar 86, 95, 104, 108, 10, 222, 256 ;
pronouns 104 ;
pronunciation 23, 114, 131, 140, 145, 222, 223, 257 ;
rank-terms 79, 80 ;
spelling 37 -8;
texts 62, 218, 21, 247 ;
words 19, 37, 53, 62, 64, 65, 69, 71, 72, 79, 80, 131, 158, 172, 175, 220, 243, 257 :
writing 24 ;
see also Mercian, Northumbria, West Saxon
Anglo-Saxons:
conversion 255 -6,
invasion 16 -19;
kingdoms 7, 8, 20, 22, 158 ;
relationship with Celts 17, 19, 153, 178 ;
relationship with Romans 15, 16 ;
relationship with Vikings 22 -6;
settlement 18, 21, 64, 221 ;
see also Celtic, Mercia, Northumbria, Wessex
Arabic 11, 12, 13, 182, 201
Arawaks 184
archaism 47
Arte of English Poesie231
aspect 93 -4;
see also tense-system
assimilation 128, 131, 177
Athelstan 8, 25
Austen, Jane 103
Australia 182, 186, 187, 188, 189, 191, 264
Austro-Hungarian Empire 211
auxiliary verbs 94, 108 -9;
see also verbs

b
Bajan 253 -4;
see also Barbados
BanglaDesh 207
Barbados 184, 253 -4
BBC English 55, 115 ;
pronunciation monitoring panel 117
Bede, Venerable 20, 219, 223
Bedfordshire 39
Belfast 171, 172, 176
Belgium 12, 167
Bengal 201
Beowulf20, 97, 99
Berkshire 177
Bernstein, Basil 110
Bible 161 ;
and colonial settlement 189 ;
Authorised Version 46, 220 ;
Cornish 178 -9;
Irish Gaelic 169 ;
Manx 179 ;

-291-

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A Social History of English
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Figures vi
  • List of Tables vii
  • Author's Preface to the First Edition viii
  • Preface to the Second Edition ix
  • Introduction 1
  • Part I - Emergence and Consolidation 5
  • 1 - Languages in Contact 7
  • 2 - Standardisation and Writing 31
  • Part II - Changing Patterns of Usage 59
  • 3 - Words and Meanings 61
  • 4 - Grammar 86
  • 5 - Pronunciation 112
  • Part III - Imposition and Spread 147
  • 6 - The Imposition of English in the British Isles 149
  • 7 - English as an International Language 180
  • Part IV - Evidence, Interpretation and Theory 215
  • 8 - A Critical Linguistic History of English Texts 217
  • Theoretical Postscript 255
  • Exercises and Topics for Further Study 266
  • Appendix: International Phonetic Alphabet Consonant Symbols 270
  • Notes and Suggested Reading 272
  • Bibliography 278
  • General Index 291
  • Index of Words and Forms 299
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