fl. c. 980/987 China
Qiao held office as Assistant Transport Commissioner of Huainan c. 984. In the course of his duties he constructed true pound-lock gates on the Huai section of the Grand Canal as a means of preventing tax frauds on grain, which resulted from the frequent wrecking of grain-carrying boats on the canal's double slipways. The pound locks included suspended lock gates (portcullis gates), implying some mechanism for raising and lowering them. The locks were covered over by a shed-like roof and were large enough to accommodate several barges at a time. Qiao's pound locks were the first in any civilization: they probably resembled those illustrated in the work of the Italian writer Vittorio Zonca on machines of the seventeenth century.
b. 28 August 1842 Frankfurt an der Oder, Germany
d. 19 May 1922 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Quincke trained in medicine at Berlin, Würzburg and Heidelberg Universities. Following three years as a postgraduate at the University of Berlin, he was appointed Professor of Internal Medicine at Berne. Five years later he was appointed to the Chair in Kiel that he held for the next thirty years.
During this time his researches included the study of angioneurotic oedema, blood pressure and the systemic responses to carotid sinus stimulation. His studies of lumbar puncture procedures in animals led to the use of the technique in humans, and in 1911 he reported on the results of using the procedure twenty-two times in ten patients.