For many years animal trainers, pet owners and naturalists have reported various kinds of perceptiveness in animals that suggest the existence of animal psi. Surprisingly little research has been done on these phenomena. Biologists have been inhibited by the taboo against 'the paranormal', and psychical researchers and parapsychologists have with few exceptions confined their attention to human beings (exceptions include Duval and Montredon 1968 and Schmidt 1970). At one time there was more interest in animal psi among parapsychologists but a prominent case of possible fraud concerning the work of Levy seems to have left the field under a bit of a cloud (Beloff 1993, pp. 145-6). The main line of research in this area currently is work with pets and pet owners.
There are three major categories of unexplained perceptiveness by animals that suggest the existence of psi, namely telepathy, the sense of direction, and premonitions.
Recent random household surveys in England and the United States have shown that many pet owners believe their animals are sometimes telepathic with them. An average of 48 per cent of dog owners and 33 per cent of cat owners said that their pets responded to their thoughts or silent commands (Sheldrake et al. 1998). Many horse trainers and riders believe that their horse can pick up their intentions telepathically. Some companion animals seem to know when a particular person is on the telephone. Some react when their owner is in distress in a distant place, or dying.
Many pet owners have also observed that their animals seem to anticipate the arrival of a member of the household, sometimes ten minutes or more in advance. The pets typically show their anticipation by going to wait at a door or window. In the random household surveys, 51 per cent of