Long-Term Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development

By Donald F. Boesch; Nancy N. Rabalais | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 6

TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES REGARDING HYDROCARBON AND METAL POLLUTANTS IN OFFSHORE SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENTS
Paul D. Boehm
CONTENTS
Introduction ........................................................................... 234
The Nature of Particulate Material in the Ocean ........................... 234
Types of Particles and Their Pollutant Affinities ......................... 234
Sources and Concentrations of Particulate Sediments .................. 236
Particle Transport and Settling ................................................ 240
Chemical Composition of Relevant Pollutant Sources ..................... 241
Types and Sources of Hydrocarbons in Sediments .......................... 243
General Sources ................................................................... 243
Chemical Composition of Hydrocarbons in Marine Sediments ....... 244
Crude Oils ....................................................................... 244
Refined Petroleum Products ................................................ 244
Biogenic Hydrocarbons .................................................... 245
Diagenetic Sources ......................................................... 245
Combustion Sources ........................................................ 245
Other Sources ................................................................ 246
Summary ............................................................................ 246
Transport of Particulate Pollutants to the Benthos ......................... 246
Petroleum Transport to the Seabed .......................................... 246
Accumulation of Particulate Pollutants in Sediments ................... 250
Levels of Accumulation of Pollutants ....................................... 253
Transformations of Deposited Hydrocarbons and Metals in Sediments ........................................................................ 261
Physical Processes ................................................................. 261
Chemical (Diagenetic) Processes ............................................. 261
Biologically Mediated Transformations ..................................... 262
Weathering of Petroleum Hydrocarbons ................................... 263
Factors Affecting the Bioavailability of Sediment Contaminants ....... 264
Postdepositional Transport ........................................................ 266
Particle Deposition ............................................................... 267
Bed Stability and Erosion ...................................................... 267
Models ............................................................................... 269
Assessment Strategies and Research Needs .................................. 271
Previous Assessment Studies ................................................... 271
Design of Future Studies ........................................................ 273

-233-

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