Long-Term Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development

By Donald F. Boesch; Nancy N. Rabalais | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 7

TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF PETROLEUM: BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES
Richard Bartha and Ronald M. Atlas
CONTENTS
Introduction ........................................................................... 288
Hydrocarbon-Degrading Marine Microorganisms ........................... 289
Identity and Distribution ........................................................ 289
Microbial Emulsification and Uptake of Hydrocarbons ................ 293
Microbial Metabolism of Hydrocarbons ....................................... 294
Individual Hydrocarbons and Structural Classes ......................... 295
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons ...................................................... 295
Alicyclic Hydrocarbons ....................................................... 298
Aromatic and Condensed Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons .............. 300
Asphaltenes and Resins ...................................................... 303
Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mixtures ................... 304
Substrate Range ................................................................ 305
Diauxie or Sparing ............................................................. 306
Cometabolism ................................................................... 306
Inhibitory Components ....................................................... 307
Summary ......................................................................... 307
Products of Petroleum Biodegradation ......................................... 307
Mineralization of Petroleum ................................................... 307
Biodegradation Intermediates and Their Effects ......................... 308
Rates of Petroleum Biodegradation ............................................. 309
Factors Influencing Petroleum Biodegradation ........................... 309
Composition and Weathering of Petroleum ............................ 310
Temperature ..................................................................... 311
Pressure ........................................................................... 312
Oxygen ............................................................................ 312
Mineral Nutrients .............................................................. 314
Physical Form of the Oil ..................................................... 314
Substrate Concentration ...................................................... 315
Direct and Indirect Involvement of Animals in Oil Degradation . 316
Summary ......................................................................... 317
Measured Rates of Petroleum Biodegradation ............................ 317
Effects of Oil Pollution Control Measures on Petroleum Biodegradation .................................................................... 320
Potential of Stimulated Biodegradation for Oil Pollution Abatement 321
Effects of Hydrocarbons on Microbial Communities ....................... 322
Questions for Future Research ................................................... 328

-287-

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