Long-Term Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development

By Donald F. Boesch; Nancy N. Rabalais | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 10

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DRILLING FLUIDS, DRILL CUTTINGS AND PRODUCED WATERS
Jerry M. Neff
CONTENTS
Introduction ........................................................................... 469
Fate of Operational Discharges .................................................. 470
Drilling Fluid and Cuttings ..................................................... 470
Produced Water ................................................................... 473
Toxicity of Drilling Fluid and Produced Water Ingredients .............. 475
Drilling Fluids ...................................................................... 475
Produced Water ................................................................... 479
Acute Toxicity of Used Drilling Fluids and Produced Waters ........... 482
Bioassay Protocol ................................................................. 482
Drilling Fluids ...................................................................... 483
Produced Waters .................................................................. 486
Conclusions ......................................................................... 490
Chronic and Sublethal Effects of Drilling Fluids and Produced Water ............................................................. 491
Drilling Fluids ...................................................................... 491
Microcosm Studies ................................................................ 496
Interpretation of Laboratory Biological Effects Studies with Drilling Fluids in Relation to Field Observations ..................... 497
Produced Water ................................................................... 498
Bioavailability of Contaminants from Drilling Fluids and Produced Water ................................................................ 498
Field Studies ........................................................................... 500
Exploratory Drilling .............................................................. 501
Development and Production .................................................. 509
Conclusions ............................................................................ 520
Recommendations ................................................................... 522
Long-Term Monitoring Programs ............................................ 522
Information Needs ................................................................ 523

INTRODUCTION

The first offshore oil wells were drilled in the 1890s from piers extending from the southern California coast. The first offshore oil field in the Gulf of Mexico was developed in the late 1930s and the first producing well out of sight of land

-469-

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