Long-Term Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development

By Donald F. Boesch; Nancy N. Rabalais | Go to book overview

5. Since it is generally agreed that any impacts of drilling fluid discharges will be restricted to the benthos where drilling fluid solids accumulate, solid phase bioassay protocols should be developed to more realistically evaluate the toxicity of drilling fluid solids to benthic organisms. Environmentally realistic and interpretable standard bioassay protocols are needed for certification and acceptance of generic muds and new mud additives and formulations as specified in NPDES permits.


LITERATURE CITED
Abel, P.D. 1974. Toxicity of synthetic detergents to fish and aquatic invertebrates. J. Fish. Biol. 6:179-298.
Addy, J.M., D. Levell and J.P. Hartley. 1978. Biological monitoring of sediments in Ekofisk Oilfield. Pages 515-539 in Proc. Conference on Assessment of Ecological Impacts of Oil Spills. American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, D.C.
Amiard, J.C., C. Amiard-Triquet, C. Metayer and R. Ferre. 1983. Etude du transfert de quelques oligo-elements metalliques entre le milieu sedimentaire estuarien et les poissons plats “mangeurs de sediments”. Mar. Environ. Res. 10:159-171.
American Petroleum Institute. 1982. Quarterly Review of Drilling Statistics. April 1982. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.
Anderson, J.B., E.C. Tsivoglou and S.D. Shearer. 1963. Effects of uranium mill wastes on biological fauna of the Animas River (Colorado-New Mexico). Pages 373-383 in V. Schultz and A.W. Klement, Jr. (eds.), Radioecology. Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York.
Anderson, J.B., R.B. Wheeler and R.R. Schwarzer. 1981a. Sedimentologic and geochemical results of the Buccaneer oil/gas field study. Pages 721-724 in Proc. 1981 Oil Spill Conference. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.
Anderson, J.R., R.B. Wheeler and R.R. Schwarzer. 1981b. Sedimentology and geochemistry of recent sediments. Pages 59-67 in B.S. Middleditch (ed.), Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil Pollution. The Buccaneer Gas and Oil Field Study. Plenum Press, New York.
Anderson, J.W. 1982. The transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from sediments to benthos and the potential effects. Pages 165-179 in G.F. Mayer (ed.), Ecological Stress and the New York Bight: Science and Management. Estuarine Research Federation, Columbia, South Carolina.
Anderson, J.W., J.M. Neff, B.A. Cox, H.E. Tatem and G.M. Hightower. 1974. Characteristics of dispersions of water-soluble extracts of crude and refined oils and their toxicity to estuarine crustaceans and fish. Mar. Biol. 27:75-88.
Andreasen, J.K. and R.W. Spears. 1983. Toxicity of Texan petroleum well brine to the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), a common estuarine fish. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 30:277-283.
Armstrong, H.W., K. Fucik, J.W. Anderson and J.M. Neff. 1977. Effects of Oilfield Brine Effluent on Benthic Organisms in Trinity Bay, Texas. API Publ. No. 4291. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., 82 p.
Armstrong, H.W., K. Fucik, J.W. Anderson and J.M. Neff. 1979. Effects of oilfield brine effluent on sediments and benthic organisms in Trinity Bay, Texas. Mar. Environ. Res. 2:55-69.
Atema, J., D.F. Leavitt, D.E. Barshaw and M.C. Cuomo. 1982a. Effects of drilling fluids on behavior of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, in water column and substrate exposures. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39:675-690.
Atema, J., E.B. Karnofsky, S. Olszko-Szuts and B. Bryant. 1982b. Sublethal Effects of Number 2 Fuel Oil on Lobster Behavior and Chemoreception. Report to U.S.

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