1

INTERPRETING AND CHANGING

In 1845 Karl Marx stated that 'The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point, however, is to change it' (Marx and Engels 1984:286). This stands as a warning for the second half of the nineteenth century and a battle cry for the Modernist period. Certain writers in different fields did change the world in the sense at least of massively altering people's most fundamental interpretations of 'reality'. Not least in any such list would be the six figures given prominence in this chapter: Freud, Darwin, Saussure, Nietzsche, Einstein and Marx himself. They are not all from the same generation but were all born in the nineteenth century and for a short time their lives overlapped around 1880, at the threshold of the artistic revolutions that would be collected under the heading of Modernism. In this chapter, these names will be used as shorthand for the fundamental breaks with previous understandings that occurred in Victorian Britain and across the Western world at this time; in terms of politics and history, religion and evolution, psychology, philosophy, language and science.

Modernism is a literature of the twentieth century but its clarion call is sounded throughout the nineteenth century in voices as

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Modernism
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Editor's Preface ix
  • Acknowledgements xi
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Interpreting and Changing 26
  • 2 - Genres, Art and Film 72
  • 3 - Texts, Contexts, Intertexts 129
  • Glossary 208
  • Bibliography 213
  • Index 220
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