Creating the Productive Workplace

By Derek Clements-Croome | Go to book overview

actual value, if used by each individual to approach conditions providing individual thermal neutrality whenever this can be done without decreasing performance on the task in hand, would increase group average performance by up to 7.0 per cent, depending on the nature of the task, even when room temperature was equal to group average neutral temperature. Averaging with equal weighting across the four very different tasks considered, all relevant to office work or light industrial work, the improvement in productivity achieved at the group average neutral temperature is 5.4 per cent if occupants use this strategy. The performance improvement due to individual control increases at room temperatures above group average neutral temperature. The outcome in terms of bottom-line productivity depends on the proportion of each person's time for which each task is critical-which becomes increasingly difficult to estimate at higher levels in the job hierarchy-but it should be remembered that this advantage occurs in addition to the comfort and motivational advantages of enabling 99 per cent of a group to achieve thermal comfort when room temperature is set to the group average neutral temperature. The calculated impact on productivity is a conservative estimate, as comfort in itself has not been assumed to improve performance, although it may well do so. If an IMCD uses a fan to provide additional cooling effect under individual control, the noise increase should be less than 3.9 dBA per K equivalent, or no overall subjective benefit will be experienced. As it is not particularly difficult to reduce the noise level of the small fans required for individual microclimate control, productivity improvements have been calculated assuming that there will be no negative effects of fan noise on performance.


References

a
ASHRAE (1993) Handbook of Fundamentals. Atlanta, GA: ASHRAE.

c
Clausen, G., Carrick, L., Fanger, P.O., Sun Woo Kim, Poulsen, T. and Rindel, J.H. (1993) A comparative study of discomfort caused by indoor air pollution, thermal load and noise. Indoor Air,3, 255-262.

e
European Union Prestandard (1994) Ventilation for Buildings-Design Criteria for the Indoor Environment. CEN Ref. prENV 1752:1994 E Final Draft.

g
Grivel, F. and Candas, V. (1991) Ambient temperatures preferred by young European males and females at rest. Ergonomics,34(3), 365-378.

k
Kroner, W., Stark-Martin, J.A. and Willemain, T. (1992) Rensselaer's West Bend Mutual Study: using advanced office technology to increase productivity. Center for Architectural Research, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.

s
Santos, A.M.B. and Gunnarsen, L. (1997) Trade-off between temperature and noise, air velocity and window area during chamber tests. Proceedings of Healthy Buildings/IAQ '97,2, 41-46.
SCANVAC (1991) Classified Indoor Climate Systems. Stockholm: Swedish Indoor Climate Institute.

w
Wyon, D.P. (1993) Healthy buildings and their impact on productivity. Proceedings

-205-

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