Monitoring School Performance: A Guide for Educators

By J. Douglas Willms | Go to book overview

Chapter 5

Measuring Pupil Inputs

Socioeconomic Status and its Relationship with Academic Achievement

The relationship between pupils' family background characteristics and schooling outcomes is well established. However, researchers disagree about the magnitude of the relationship, and therefore debate the role that measures of family background should play in studies of schooling. Sociologists have devoted considerable effort to constructing measures of socioeconomic status (SES), but the measures have not been used consistently in the study of schooling (Mueller and Parcel, 1981). Researchers sometimes avoid using measures of SES because of social and political issues concerning the collection of information on pupils' family backgrounds, but often they avoid using them because they are unclear about their role in analysis. In some applications SES may have a limited role if measures of pupil ability or pretests of academic achievement are available.

In this chapter I assert that schools vary substantially in their intakes, and that the relationship between pupils' background characteristics and schooling outcomes warrants consideration. If analysts wish to estimate the effects of particular school practices or policies, or to compare schools in their achievement, they must include valid and reliable measures of schooling inputs. This chapter discusses the role of SES and background characteristics in analysis, and makes recommendations for their measurement. To do this I strive to establish a 'best set' of input measures for the study of school effects. This is an impossible task, of course, but the attempt serves to clarify many of the problems associated with the measurement of SES and pupil characteristics.

Researchers use the term 'socioeconomic status' (SES) to refer to the relative position of a family or individual on an hierarchical social structure, based on their access to, or control over, wealth, prestige, and power (see Mueller and Parcel, 1981). Operationally, the SES of pupils is ascribed to a wide range of background measures describing the occupational prestige, educational levels, and economic positions of pupils' parents. White (1982) conducted a meta-analysis of over 200 studies that reported the relationship between composite measures of SES and academic achievement. The average of the 489 individual-level correlations reported in his meta-analysis was .25, but what was particularly interesting was the variability in the correlations

-50-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Monitoring School Performance: A Guide for Educators
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Tables and Figures viii
  • Preface x
  • Chapter 1 - Introduction 1
  • Chapter 2 - The Social and Political Context of Monitoring Systems 12
  • Chapter 3 - Monitoring Systems and the Input-Output Model 28
  • Chapter 4 - The Estimation of School Effects 38
  • Chapter 5 - Measuring Pupil Inputs 50
  • Chapter 6 - Schooling Processes 64
  • Chapter 7 - Schooling Outcomes 82
  • Chapter 8 - Design of a Monitoring System 91
  • Chapter 9 - Analyses for an Annual Report 103
  • Chapter 10 - A Research Program 120
  • Chapter 11 - Conclusions 143
  • Technical Appendix 157
  • References 163
  • Index 175
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 184

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.