Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge - Vol. 3

By Cheris Kramarae; Dale Spender | Go to book overview

References and Further Reading
Barry, K. 1984. International feminism: Networking against female sexual slavery. New York: International Women's Tribune Center.
Bell, L., ed. 1987. Good girls, bad girls: Sex trade workers and feminists face to face. Toronto: Women's Press.
Enloe, C. 1990. Bananas, beaches and bases: Making feminist sense of international politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Foucault, M. 1980. The history of sexuality. Vol. 1, An introduction. New York: Vintage.
Lerner, G. 1986. The creation of patriarchy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lim, L.L., ed. 1998. The sex sector: The economic and social bases of prostitution in southeast Asia. International Labour Office, Geneva.
Phongpaichit, P., Piriyarangsen and Tacrat, N. 1998. Guns, girls, gambling, ganja. Chiengmai: Silkworm.
Truong, T.D. 1990. Sex,money and morality: Prostitution and tourism in southeast Asia. London: Zed.
Truong, T.D., and V.O.del Rosario. 1994. Captive outsiders: Trafficked sex workers and mail-order brides in the European Union. In J. Wiersma, ed., Insiders and outsiders: On the making of Europe II. Kampen: Pharos.
Warren, J.F. 1993. Ah ku and karayuki-san: Prostitution in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press.

Thanh-Dam Truong

PSYCHIATRY

Psychiatry is the study and treatment of mental disorder. Behavior viewed as “unwell” is modified by using psychotropic drugs (biological psychiatry) or by using therapies based on increasing self-awareness through insight and counseling from a therapist or altering relational and social factors (psychosocial therapies). Psychiatrists are routinely involved in using normative models of behavior and evaluating competing definitions of aberrant or maladaptive behavior. Thus psychiatry-like all disciplines that propose and defend a socially constructed model of normality-has an important function in determining gender roles and contributes to psychosocial definitions of the “mentally healthy woman.” In the past, for example, psychiatry was the site of the medicalization of homosexuality. Women face difficulties that arise from the masculinist model of dominant teachings in psychiatry in developed countries. Normative views of behavior are fundamentally masculinist, whether applied to patient or therapist (Russell, 1995).


Women as Patients and Consumers

Beginning with the early studies of hysteria, women have been the favored subjects of psychiatric scrutiny. Women are the major consumers of mental health services, both directly, as patients, and indirectly, as the major providers of home-based (or community) care of the mentally ill. The latter model is increasingly popular in developed nations as a means of minimizing hospitalization and other medical costs.

That more women seek mental health services reflects socialization processes (Ehrenreich and English, 1978) that encourage women to seek help from health care professionals for themselves and their families. Women are also more expressive and less inhibited than men in disclosing their distress and more sensitive to contextual factors such as relational disturbances. Finally, women are most vulnerable to psychiatric disorder during the postpartum period (reflecting hormonal and psychosocial factors) and most vulnerable to depression when caring at home for preschool children. Thus they are positioned to receive more medication and attract more diagnoses than men. Women consume more psychotropic medications (prescription drugs) while men consume more alcohol and illicit drugs. These basically social differences in gender role behavior contribute to an overrepresentation of women as consumers of mental health services. Similarly, women's acting out of personal distress is more likely to take the form of some sort of somatization and hence to attract the attention of health care services. Men are more apt to express their distress in risky and aggressive behavior and are more likely to kill or injure themselves or others or to be treated as “criminal” rather than as unwell. Finally, sexual and physical abuse and domestic violence contribute enormously to women's distress and relate to institutionalized mores of male violence.


Women as Psychiatrists

Psychiatry is one of the more popular medical specialties for women doctors, who generally enter those areas of medicine to which they seem more “naturally” suited, namely pediatrics, family medicine, and counseling. These choices are determined by a number of factors: women manifest a more affiliative and humanitarian orientation and hence are more attracted to the direct-care areas of medicine; also, there is greater resistance to the entry of women into traditionally masculine fields, such as orthopedic surgery and high-technology medicine. Although at least half of all premed-

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Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge - Vol. 3
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Alphabetical List of Articles vii
  • Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women 1095
  • I 1097
  • References and Further Reading 1099
  • References and Further Reading 1120
  • References and Further Reading 1156
  • J 1163
  • K 1179
  • L 1187
  • References and Further Reading 1202
  • References and Further Reading 1226
  • References and Further Reading 1267
  • References and Further Reading 1295
  • M 1297
  • References and Further Reading 1313
  • References and Further Reading 1387
  • N 1429
  • O 1473
  • P 1485
  • References and Further Reading 1536
  • References and Further Reading 1573
  • References 1577
  • References and Further Reading 1629
  • References and Further Reading 1663
  • References and Further Reading 1682
  • References and Further Reading 1711
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