MMWR 2000). Psychological interventions such as support groups and information hotlines have minimized the incidence of mental health problems as a consequence of illness (Stanton et al., chap. 21; Wills & Filer, chap. 12).
Most behavioral interventions focus on the individual as the target of change (or on aggregates of individuals). In contrast, Stokols (1992), among others, urges us “to provide environmental resources and interventions that promote enhanced well-being among occupants of an area” (1992, pp. 6–7). We are only beginning to understand the effects of living in neighborhoods that lack basic environmental resources- neighborhoods with extreme poverty, high crime rates, inadequate housing, public transportation or schools-on health and well-being (Fullilove, 1999). The case study detailed by Butterfoss et al. (chap. 37) in this handbook provides a blueprint for how researchers and health educators allied with community coalitions can improve community health outcomes. Altman and Goodman (chap. 36) describe a broader range of community-wide or policy strategies that can lead to community-wide change in health behaviors, such as changing the community's social norms regarding health behaviors such as smoking, nutrition or exercise (see also Revenson & Schiaffmo, 2000). They stress the importance of including community members in health-promoting programs from their inception, and devising culturally-sensitive health promotion strategies in order for health interventions to be incorporated by the community once researchers have moved on. Clearly, “translating” our knowledge of biobehavioral mechanisms in health and illness to more widespread efforts will be a challenge for the next decade of community psychology.
The exponential growth in brain and behavioral sciences over the past decade is mirrored in the field of health psychology. But rapid growth also begets growing pains. Health psychologists have taken stock, many times, to assess our progress and our pitfalls (Coyne, 1997; Landrine & Klonoff, 1992; Taylor, 1984; 1987; 1990). As recently as March, 2000, when APA's division of Health Psychology sponsored a conference on the future of health psychology, a unified definition or vision for the field still did not exist. Despite this-or perhaps as a result of it-health psychologists have managed to make great progress in our understanding of the cognitive, behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, physiological, social, environmental, social environmental, personality, and developmental factors underlying health and illness processes over the past quarter- century. But there are many miles to go before we sleep.
Adler, N. E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M. A., Cohen, S., Folkman, S., Kahn, R. L., & Syme, S. L. (1994). Socioeconomic status and health: The challenge of the gradient. American Psychologist, 49, 15–24.
Amaro, H. (1995). Love, sex and power: Considering women's realities in HIV prevention. American Psychologist, 50, 437–447.
Andersen, B. L., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. IS., & Glaser, R. (1994). A biobehavioral model of cancer stress and disease course. Americm Psychologist, 49, 389–404.
Anderson, N. B. (1999). A definition of behavioral and social sciences research for the National Institutes of Health. Available: <http:/www.1.od.nih.govlobssr/def.htm>
Anderson, N. B. (Ed.) (1995). Behavioral and sociocultural perspectives on ethnicity and health. [Special Issue]. Health Psychology, 14(7), 589–591.
Anderson, N. B., & Eisler, R. M. (Eds.).(1997). Research Issues on Minority Health. Journal of Gender, Culture, and Health, [Special Issue]. 2(2).
Anderson, N. B. & McNeilly, M. (1991). Age, gender, and ethnicity as variables in psychophysiological assessment: Sociodemographics in context. Psychological Assessment, 3, 376–384.
Baum, A., & Posluszny, D.M. (1999). Health psychology: Mapping biobehavioral contributions to health and illness. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 137–163.
Baum, A., & Singer, J. E. (1982). Issues in child health and adolescent health. Handbook of psychology and health series, Vol. 2. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Baum, A., & Singer, J. E. (1987). Stress. Handbook of psychology and health series, Vol. 5. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Baum, A., Taylor, S. E., & Singer, J. E. (1984). Psychological aspects of health. Handbook of psychology and health series, Vol. 4. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Blechman, E., & Brownell, K. (Eds.) (1998) Behavioral medicine & women: A Comprehensive handbook. New York: Guilford.
Coyne, J. C. (1997). Improving coping research: Raze the slum before any more building. Journal of Health Psychology, 2, 153–155.
Engel, G. (1977). The need for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196, 129–136.
Feuerstein, M., Labbe, E. E., & Kuczmierczyk, A. R. (1986). Health psychology: A psychobiological perspective. New York: Plenum.
Fullilove, M.T., (1999). The house of Joshua: Meditations on family and place. Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Frost, R. (1923). “Stopping by woods on a snowy evening”. In New Hampshire. New York: Henry Holt.
Gatchel, R. J., Baum, A., & Singer, J. E. (1982). Clinical psychology and behavioral medicine: Overlapping disciplines. Handbook of psychology and health series, Vol. 1. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gentry, W. D (Ed.) (1984). Handbook of Behavioral Medicine. New York: Guilford.
Goldberger, L., & Breznitz, S. (Ms.) (1993). Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (2nd ed.) New York: Free Press.
Handbook. New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1997). [CD-ROM version] New York: Oxford University Press.
Healthy People 2000: National health promotion and disease prevention objectives. [DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 91–502121. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Hoyert, D. L., Kochanek, K. D., & Murphy, S. L. (1999). Deaths: Final data for 1997. National Vital Statistics Reports, 47(19), 1–104.
Kato, P. M. & Mann, T. (1996). Handbook of diversity issues in health psychology. New York: Plenum.
Krantz, D. S., Baum, A., & Singer, J. E. (1983). Cardiovascular disorders and behavior. Handbook of psychology and health series, Vol. 3. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Landrine, H., & Klonoff, E. A. (1992). Culture and health-related schemas: A review and proposal for interdisciplinary integration. Health Psychology, 11, 267–276.
Lerman, C. (1997). Psychological aspects of genetic testing: Introduction to the special issue. Health Psychology, 16(1), 3–7.