Handbook of Health Psychology

By Andrew Baum; Tracey A. Revenson et al. | Go to book overview

with psychological impairment as well as low social support (Gabe & Williams, 1987; Galle et al., 1972). Crowding studies that calculate persons per room as the density' metric that include people living alone distory the “stirna” of association between crowding and health outcomes.

Outcome measures are also wanting. Several studies of psychological health employed one item or scales of unknown psychometric standardized, sensitive indicators. Immune function would be a particularly valuable adjunct to environmental morbidity studies. Several studies of blood pressure incorporated one or two readings, often taken in a medical setting. Such data are unreliable and of questionable validity.

Health psychology has demonstrated that individual, biological, and personological characteristics are central to understanding health and disease. A smaller body of work within health psychology has also examined the potential role of sociocultural factors in human health. Hopefully, this chapter has directed attention to the potential direct, indirect, and interactive roles the physical environment can play in health and human behavior.


Preparation of this chapter was partially supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (1 ROl I-IL4732501) the National Science Foundation (BNS-8920483) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Hatch-No 327407). I am grateful to Jana Cooperman and Tamir Ebbin for bibliographic assistance. I thank Steve Lepore, Paul Paulus, and Shirley Thompson for critical feedback on earlier drafts.


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Effects of social density in university residential environments. Journal of ersun and social Psychology, 34, 434-M-446. Baron, R. M., & Rodin, J. (1978). Personal control as a mediator of crowding. In A. Baum, J. E. Singer, & S. Valins (Eds.), Advances in environmental psychology (Vol. 1). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Baum, A., Aiello, J. R., & Calesnick, L. E. (1978). Crowding and personal control: Social density and the development

helplessness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1000–1011.

Baum, A., Gatche, R. J., Aiello, J. R., & Compson, D. (1981).

Cognitive mediation of environmental stress. In J. H. Harvey (Ed.), ogio, socked behavior, aid the enviroment (pp. 513–533). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Baum, A., & Grunberg, N. (1995). Measurement of stress hormones. l[n S. Cohen, R. C. Kessler, & L. Gordon is.), esg

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experimental research on human crowding. paper presented at the Eastern Psychological

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Crowding and the role of inteersn distance preference.

Sociometry, 40, 271–282.

Aieho, J. R., Nicosia, G., & Thompson, D, E. (1979). Physiological, social, and behavioral consequences of crowding on children and adolescents. Chitd eveloeng, 50, 195–202.

Aiello, 3. R., Thompson, D. E., & Baum, A. (1985). Children, crowding, and control: Effects of environmental stress on social behavior. In J. F. Wohwi & W. van Vliet (Eds.), Hbts for children (pp. 97–124). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


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properties. Studios

of health sorely need

of learned


Association Convention, New York.

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Psychological studies of social density. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Elrbaum Associates.

Baum, A., & Vahns, S. (1979). Crowding and the regulation of social contact. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advises in externent social psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 131–175). New York: Academic Press. Becker, F. (1990). The total workplace. New York: Van Nostrand

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& Sunaday, E. (1973). Dormitory density and helping behavior.

enviroment end behaviur, 5, 45–90.

Bly, S., Goodard, M., & McLean, J. (1993). A review of the effects of noise on the immune system. In M. Vallet (Ed.), Noise as a public hethprubze: rupuceedinngs of the 6th nternion congress (Vol. 2, pp. 509–512). Cedex, France: INRETS.

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