with psychological impairment as well as low social support (Gabe & Williams, 1987; Galle et al., 1972). Crowding studies that calculate persons per room as the density' metric that include people living alone distory the “stirna” of association between crowding and health outcomes.
Outcome measures are also wanting. Several studies of psychological health employed one item or scales of unknown psychometric standardized, sensitive indicators. Immune function would be a particularly valuable adjunct to environmental morbidity studies. Several studies of blood pressure incorporated one or two readings, often taken in a medical setting. Such data are unreliable and of questionable validity.
Health psychology has demonstrated that individual, biological, and personological characteristics are central to understanding health and disease. A smaller body of work within health psychology has also examined the potential role of sociocultural factors in human health. Hopefully, this chapter has directed attention to the potential direct, indirect, and interactive roles the physical environment can play in health and human behavior.
Preparation of this chapter was partially supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (1 ROl I-IL4732501) the National Science Foundation (BNS-8920483) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Hatch-No 327407). I am grateful to Jana Cooperman and Tamir Ebbin for bibliographic assistance. I thank Steve Lepore, Paul Paulus, and Shirley Thompson for critical feedback on earlier drafts.
Antonova, K. (1971). Effects of general vibration on equipment operators in ore-dressing plants. Hygiene and tio, 36, 457–460.
Appfeyard, D., & Lintell, M. (1972). The environments
city streets. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 38,
Amow, I? M., Hierholzer, J. C., Higbee, J., & Harris, D. H. (1977).
Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis: A mixed virus outbreak hong Vietnamese refugees on. America Journal of Epidemiology, 105, 68–74.
Babisch, W., E. wood, P., ising, H., & Kruppa, B. (1993). TrafjFic noise as a risk factor for myoeardial infarction. In H. Ising & B. Kruppa (Eds.), Noise and disease (pp. 158–166). New York: Verlag. Babisch, W., Fromme, H., Beyer, A., & Ising, H. (1996). Elevated catecholamine levels in urine in traffic noise exposed subjects. Proceedings on Internuise 96, 4, 215321X Liverpool, UK. Baldassare, M. (1979). Residential crowding in urban America.
Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Baldassare, M. (1981). The effects of household density on subgroups. American phychology review, 46, 110–118. Baron, R. M., Mandel, D. R., Adams, C. A., & Griffen, L. M. (1976).
Effects of social density in university residential environments. Journal of ersun and social Psychology, 34, 434-M-446. Baron, R. M., & Rodin, J. (1978). Personal control as a mediator of crowding. In A. Baum, J. E. Singer, & S. Valins (Eds.), Advances in environmental psychology (Vol. 1). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Baum, A., Aiello, J. R., & Calesnick, L. E. (1978). Crowding and personal control: Social density and the development
helplessness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1000–1011.
Baum, A., Gatche, R. J., Aiello, J. R., & Compson, D. (1981).
Cognitive mediation of environmental stress. In J. H. Harvey (Ed.), ogio, socked behavior, aid the enviroment (pp. 513–533). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Baum, A., & Grunberg, N. (1995). Measurement of stress hormones. l[n S. Cohen, R. C. Kessler, & L. Gordon is.), esg
Abey-Wia, I., A'Brook, M. F., Gattioni, F.E.G., & Herridge, C.
F. (1969). Mental-hospital admissions and aircraft noise. The nce, 633, 1275–1277.
Aiello, J. R., Epstein, Y. M., & Karlin, R. A. (1975). I;lield
experimental research on human crowding. paper presented at the Eastern Psychological
Aiello, J. R., DeRisi, D. T., Epstein, Y. M., & Karlin, R. A. (1977).
Crowding and the role of inteersn distance preference.
Sociometry, 40, 271–282.
Aieho, J. R., Nicosia, G., & Thompson, D, E. (1979). Physiological, social, and behavioral consequences of crowding on children and adolescents. Chitd eveloeng, 50, 195–202.
Aiello, 3. R., Thompson, D. E., & Baum, A. (1985). Children, crowding, and control: Effects of environmental stress on social behavior. In J. F. Wohwi & W. van Vliet (Eds.), Hbts for children (pp. 97–124). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
CA: Brooks-Cole. Ando, Y. (1987). Effects of daily dose on the fetus and cerebral hemispheric specialization of children. Inter-Noise '87, 2,
Ando, Y., & Hattori, H. (1977). Effects of noise on human placental lactogen (HPL) levels in maternal plasma. prudish Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,
of health sorely need
Association Convention, New York.
(pp. 175–192). New York: Oxford University Press. Baum, A., 8z Vahns, S. (1977). Architecture and social behavior:
Psychological studies of social density. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Elrbaum Associates.
Baum, A., & Vahns, S. (1979). Crowding and the regulation of social contact. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advises in externent social psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 131–175). New York: Academic Press. Becker, F. (1990). The total workplace. New York: Van Nostrand
Reiod. Bell, P., & Greene, T. (1982). Thermal stress: Physiological comfort, performance, and social effects of hot and cold environments. In G. W. Evans (Ed.), Environmental stress (pp. 75–104). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bergman, B. A. (1971). The effects of group size, personal space, and success-failure upon physiological arousal, test performance, and questionnaire response. Dissertation Abstract International, 2319, 3419-A-3420-A.
Bic, L., Teger, A., Gabrie'ie, T., McLaugin,
& Sunaday, E. (1973). Dormitory density and helping behavior.
enviroment end behaviur, 5, 45–90.
Bly, S., Goodard, M., & McLean, J. (1993). A review of the effects of noise on the immune system. In M. Vallet (Ed.), Noise as a public hethprubze: rupuceedinngs of the 6th nternion congress (Vol. 2, pp. 509–512). Cedex, France: INRETS.
Booth, A. (1976). Urban ruwding and its consequences. New
York: Praeger. Booth, A., & Edwards, J. N. (1976). Crowding and family relations.
American Sociulogical Review, 41, 308–321.
C., Berger, EM.,
I. (1975). The environment and social behavior. Monterey,