Handbook of Health Psychology

By Andrew Baum; Tracey A. Revenson et al. | Go to book overview

vascular reactivity in Blacks experiencing chronic stress. Furthermore, macrosocial phenomenon, such as lower SES, residence in socially unstable communities, and chronic exposure to racial stress should be positively associated with increased SNS activity and greater sodium retention. Finally, the contextual model would predict that Blacks with more coping resources (e.g., high social support, strong religious orientation, and racial identity) will show lower SNS activity and decreased sodium retention relative to those with fewer coping resources.


In summary, according to the proposed model, race is viewed as a sociocultural designation that denotes differential exposure to chronic social stressors. It is proposed that Black Americans are exposed to significantly more chronic social stressors than White Americans. Many of these chronic social stressors have been associated with hypertension prevalence in epidemiological studies. Furthermore, chronic stress has been shown to augment cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress in both animals and humans and to increase sodium retention in SHRs. Acute stress has also been demonstrated to increase sodium retention in humans. The essential element of this model is that chronic social stressors that are overrepresented within the Black American population due to historical factors are related to an increase in sodium retention and enhanced reactivity. This altered sodium metabolism and reactivity may be further augmented by biological, behavioral, and psychological risk factors for hypertension and modulated by stress coping resources. It is hoped that this model will serve as a stimulus for further research on the biopsychosocial aspects of autonomic reactivity and hypertension in minorities. Disparity in health status will remain a problem in this country until researchers begin to look at ethnic- specific pathways using this type of contextual modeling approach. This is a challenge directed at researchers to test the applicability of this model to other minority populations.


Adams-Campbell, L. L., Brambilla, D. J., & M&inlay, S. M.

(1993). Correlates of the prevalence of self-reported hypertension among African-American and white women. Etlzrtico

C. (1993). Assessment of cardiovascular reactivity: A

race difference in autonomic reactivity: A proposed

M. A. (1983). Emotional,

Disease, 3, 119–125.

Ambrosioni, E., Costa, F. V., Borghi, C., Montebugnoli, L.,

Giordani, M. F., & Magnani, B. (1982). Effects of moderate salt restriction on intralymphocytic sodium and pressor

stress in borderline hypertension. Hypertensiun,

response to

Ambrosioni, E., Costa, F. V., Montebugnoli, L., Borghi, C., &

Magnani, B. (1981). Intralymphocytic sodium concentration as an index of response to stress and exercise in young subjects with borderline hypertension. ClinicalScience,

Anderson, N. B. (1989). Racial differences in stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and hypertension: Current status and substantive issues. Psychological Bulletin, 105(1), 89–405.

Anderson, N. B., & Armstead, C. A. (1995). Toward understanding the association of socioeconomic status and health: A new challenge for the biopsychosocial approach. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57, 213–225.

Anderson, N. B., Lane, J. D., Taguchi, F., & Williams, R. B., Jr.

(1989). Patterns of cardiovascular responses to stress as a function of race and parental hypertension in men. Health Psychology, 8, 525–540.

Anderson, N. B., Lane, J. D., Taguchi, F., Williams, R. B., Jr., &

Houseworth, S. J. (1989). Race, parental history of hypertension, and patterns of cardiovascular reactivity in women. Psychophysiology, 26, 3947.

Anderson, N. B., McNeilly, M. D., Armstead, C., Clark, R., &


methodological overview. Ethnicity & Disease, 3(Suppl.), S29–S37.

Anderson, N. B., McNeilly, M., & Myers, H. (1991). Autonomic reactivity and hypertension in Blacks: A review and proposed model. Ethnicity & Disease, 1, 154–170.

Anderson, N. B., McNeilly, M., & Myers, H. (1992).


conceptual model. In J. Rick Turner et al. (Eds.), Zndividual differences in cardiovascular response to stress (pp. 125–145). New York: Plenum.

Anderson, N. B., Myers, H. F., Pickering, T., & Jackson, J. S.

(1989). Hypertension in Blacks: Psychosocial and biological perspectives. Journal of Hypertension, 7, 161–172. Anderson, N. B., Williams, R. B., Jr., Lane, J. D., Haney, T.,

Simpson, S., & Houseworth, S. J. (1986). Type A behavior, family history of hypertension, and cardiovascular responses among Black women. Health Psychology, 5, 393–406.

Armstead, C. A. (1991). The relationship between control, hostility, anger suppression, and cardiovascular reponsivity to racism, interpersonal, and active coping stressors among Black and White women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Tennessee.

Armstead, C. A., Anderson, N. B., & Lawler, K. A. (1994). The interactions of socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and cardiovascular reactivity among women. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society, Boston. Armstead, C. A., Lawler, K. A., Gorden, G., Cross, J., & Gibbons, J.

(1989). Relationship of racial stressors to blood pressure responses and anger expression in Black college students. Health Psychology, 8, 541–556.

Bagley, S. P., Angel, R., Dilworth-Anderson, P., Liu, W., &

Schinke, S. (1995). Adaptive health behaviors among ethnic minorities. Health Psychology, 14, 632–640.

Bassett, J. R., Strand, F. L., & Cairncross, IS. D. (1978).

Glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone and related polypeptides on myocardial sensitivity to noradrenaline.

European Journal of Pharmacology, 49, 243–249.

Baum, A., Gatchel, R. J., & Schaeffer,

behavioral, and physiological effects of chronic stress at Three Mile Island. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51,


Belle, D. (1982). The impact of poverty on social networks and supports. Marriage and Family Review, 5, 89–403.

Bullard, R. D. (1994). Dumping in Dixie: Race, class, and environmental quality. Boulder, CO: WestviewPress.

Burt, V. L., Whelton, P., Roccella, E. J., Brown, C., Cutler, J. A.,

Higgins, M., Horan, M. J., & Labarthe, D. (1995). Prevalence of hypertension in the U.S. adult population: Results from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 1988–1991. Hypertension, 25, 305, 313.

Calhoun, D. A., Mutinga, M. L., Wyss, J. M., & Oparil, S. (1994).

Muscle sympathetic nervous system activity in Black and Caucasian hypertensive subjects. Journal of Hypertension, 12(11), 1291–4296.

4, 789–794.

60 suppl. 7), 2%27s.


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Handbook of Health Psychology
Table of contents

Table of contents



Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 962

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.