in an open society, and Steuart (Steuart & Kark, 1993), who maintained that “health education is rooted in the recognition that the culture of a community has a deep and abiding influence on its health …[and] is socially oriented in its interpretations of the epidemiology of health and disease” (p. 5–29). From the standpoint of democratic principles, the most effective health education strategy is one that raises the levels of awareness and concerns for groups at health risk and enables them to devise their own strategies to reduce risk, strategies that are valid culturally and contextually. On practical grounds, change in health behavior and status is more likely to occur when the social and cultural context is altered to support pro-health options.
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes andpredieting
Alter, C., & Hage, J. (1993). Organizations working together. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Altman, D. G. (1986). A framework for evaluating community-based heart disease prevention programs. Social Science and Medicine, 22, 479–487.
Altman, D. G. (1995a). Strategies for community health intervention: Promises, paradoxes, pitfalls. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57, 226–233.
Altman, D. G. (1995b). Sustaining interventions in community systems: On the relationship between researchers and communities. Health Psychology, 14(6), 526–536.
Altman, D. G., Balcazar, F. E., Fawcett, S. B., Seekins, T., & Young, J. Q. (1994). Public health advocacy: Creating community change to improve health. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Health Promotion Resource Center.
Altman, I., Vinsel, A., &Brown, 13. B. (1981). Dialectic conceptions in social psychology: An application to social penetration and privacy regulation. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 14, pp. 108–160). New York: Academic.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Bennis, W. G., Benne, K. D., & Chin, R. (1969). The planning of change (Vol. 2). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Berger, P. L., & Neuhaus, R. J. (1977). Mediating structures and the dilemmas of the welfare state. In To empowerpeople: The role of mediating structures in public policy (pp. l–8). Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Bevan, around us. American Psychologist, 25, 442–449.
Binder, A., Stokols, D., & Catalano, R. (1975). Social ecology: An emerging multidiscipline. Journal of Environmental Education, 7, 32–43.
Blackbum, H., Luepker, R., Kline, F. G., Bracht, N., Carlaw, R., Jacobs, D., Mittelmark, M., Stauffer, L., & Taylor, H. L. (1983). The Minnesota Heart Health Program: A research and demonstration project in cardiovascular disease prevention. In J. Matarrazzo, S. Weiss, J. Herd, N. Miller, & S. Weiss (Eds.), Behavioral health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention (pp. 1171-l 178). New York: Wiley.
Blake, S. M., Jeffery, R. W., Finnegan, J. R., Crow, R. S., Pirie, P. L., Ringhofer, K. R., Fruetel, J. R., Caspersen, C. J., & Mittelmark, l 5(3), 199–208.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32(7), 5 13–53 1,
Brown, C. (1984). The art of coalition building: A guidefor community leaders. New York: The American Jewish Committee.
Brown, E. R. (1991). Community action for health promotion: A strategy to empower individuals and communities. International Journal of Health Services, 21(3), 441–456.
Brownson, R. C., Koffman, D. M., Novotny, T. E., Hughes, R. G., & Eriksen, M. P. (1995). Environmental and policy interventions to control tobacco use and prevent cardiovascular disease. Health Education Quarterly, 22(4), 478–498.
Buckner, W., Miner, K., Dreuter, M., & Wilson, M. (1992). PATCH: Community health promotion: The agenda for the '90s. Journal of Health Education, 23(3).
Butterfoss, F. D., Goodman, R. M., & Wandersman, A. (1993). Community coalitions for health promotion and disease prevention. Health Education Research, 8(3), 3 15–330.
Butterfoss, F. D., Goodman, R. M., & Wandersman, A. (1996). Community coalitions for prevention and health promotion: Factors predicting satisfaction, participation and planning. Health Education Quarterly, 23(l), 65–79.
Butterfoss, F. D., Goodman, R. M., Wandersman, A., Valois, R. F., & Chinman, M. (1996). The plan quality index: An empowerment evaluation tool for measuring and improving the quality of plans. In D. Fetterman, S. Kaftarian, Empowerment evaluation: knowledge and tools for self-assessment and accountability (pp. 304–331). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Cardiovascular Disease Plan Steering Committee. (1994). Preventing death and disability from cardiovascular diseases: A state-based plan for action. Association of State and Territorial Health Officials.
Carleton, R. A., Lasater, T. M., Assaf, A. R., Feldman, H. A., & Mc-Kinlay, S. (1995). The Pawtucket Heart Health Program: Community changes in cardiovascular risk factors and projected disease risk. American Journal of Public Health, 85(6), 777–785.
Chapman, S. (1994). The fight for public health: Principles and practice of media advocacy. London: British Medical Journal Books.
Chavis, D. M., & Newbrough, J. R. (1986). The meaning of “community” in community psychology. Journal of Community Psychology, 14(4), 335–340.
Chavis, D. M., & Wandersman, A. (1990). Sense of community in the urban environment: A catalyst for participation and community development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18(l), 55–81.
M. B. (1987). Process evaluation of acommunity-based physical activity campaign: The Minnesota Heart Health Program experience. Health Education Research, 2, 115–121.
Bloom, M. (1996). Primary prevention practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bracht, N., Finnegan, J. R., Rissel, C., Weisbrod, R., Gleason, J., Corbett, J., & Veblen-Mortenson, S. (1994). Community ownership and program continuation following a health demonstration project. Health Education Research, 9(2), 243–255.
Bracht, N., & Gleason, J. (1990). Strategies and structures for citizen participation. In N. Bracht (Ed.), Health promotion at the community level (pp. 109–124). Newbury
Bracht, N., & Kingsbury, L. (1990). Community organization principles in health promotion: A five stage model. In N. Bracht (Ed.), Health promotion at the community level (pp. 66–88). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Bracht, N., & Tsouros, A. (1990). Principles and strategies of effective
Park, CA: Sage.
community participation. Health Promotion International, social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
& A. Wandersman (Eds.), W, (1970). Psychology, the university, and the real world