Handbook of Health Psychology

By Andrew Baum; Tracey A. Revenson et al. | Go to book overview

Not unlike colleagues in basic biomedical sciences who partner with their academic institutions to form private corporations- “biotech spinoffs”- to facilitate technology transfer with respect to research findings in cellular and molecular biology, Virginia Williams and I have formed a “behavioro-tech” spinoff company, Williams LifeSkills, Inc., to further develop and market the LifeSkills system to both medical and corporate, as well as individual, buyers. Our corporate strategy is based on the premise, growing out of the research already reviewed, that psychosocial factors increase risk and costs of medical illness and that well-designed and implemented behavioral intervention packages have the potential to reduce these risks and costs. Preliminary analyses of data from corporate settings show significant decreases in hostility/anger, depression, and social isolation in persons following participation in the LifeSkills Workshop.

There has been one randomized clinical trial (Gidron, Davidson, & Bata, 1999) that used a group hostility-control intervention based on the earlier Anger Kills model and found decreases in both self-report and behaviorally assessed hostility levels, as well as diastolic blood pressure that were sustained over a 2-month follow-up period in post-MI patients randomized to the intervention as compared to patients receiving usual care. Although small in scale, this trial provides, along with the other clinical trials described earlier, encouraging evidence that structured group-based behavioral interventions that teach a set of key coping skills have real potential to improve prognosis once major illness is present. Only time will tell, but it is likely that such interventions have a role in primary prevention as well.


It is now possible to look back over the past quarter century and reflect with some pride on the accomplishments of behavioral medicine and health psychology during this exciting period. We are no longer gathered into guilds, each jealously defending its own particular psychosocial risk factor against the encroachments of other, competing guilds. Instead, we now realize that the psychosocial risk factors being studied separately do not occur in isolation from one another and associated biobehavioral characteristics, but tend to cluster in the same individuals and groups. It appears that, like the Vichy inspector played by Claude Raines in Casablanca, we have rounded up “the usual suspects” and find they belong to the same gang.

There has also been considerable progress toward identifying the biological and behavioral pathways whereby these psychosocial risk factors (including combinations of them, which are common) actually participate in the etiology is medical disease. We are just beginning to use the new tools of cellular and molecular biology in this endeavor. However, there are already exciting portents that we will be able to identify not only the basic mechanisms whereby clusters of psychosocial and biobehavioral risk characteristics participate in pathogenesis, but also the basic neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the clustering in the first place.

Finally, and most exciting and satisfying of all, in the not-too-distant future it appears increasingly likely that we will be able to apply what we have learned to reduce human suffering and disease and, at the same time, enhance well- being and quality of life.


Preparation of this chapter was supported in part by grants POlHL36587 and ROl-HL44998 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; grants 5P60-AG11268 and PO2-AG12058 from the National Institute on Aging; grant KOl-MH70482 from the National Institute of Mental Health; the Duke Clinical Research Unit grant MOlRR30; and research support from the Fetzer Institute and the John D. and Catherine T. McArthur Foundation.


Adams, D. O. (1994). Molecular biology of macrophage

A pathway whereby psychosocial factors can potentially affect health. Psychosomatic Medicine, 56, 3 16–327.

Adler, N. E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M. A., Folkman, S., & Syme, S. L. (1993). Socioeconomic inequalities in health: No easy solution. Journal of the American Medical Association, 269,3 140–3 145.

Anda, R., Williamson, D., Jones, D., Macera, C., Eaker, E., Glassman, A., & Marks, J. (1993). Depressed affect, hopelessness, and the risk of ischemic heart disease in a cohort of U.S. adults. Epidemiology,4, activation:


Barefoot, J. C., Dahlstrom, W. G., & Williams, R. B. (1983). Hostility, CHD incidence, and total mortality: A 2%year study of 255 physicians. Psychosomatic Medicine, 45, 59–63.

Barefoot, J. C., Helms, M. J., Mark, D. M., Blumenthal, J. A., Califf, R. M., Haney, T. L., O'Connor, C. M., Siegler, I. C., &Williams, R. B. (1996). Depression and long term mortality risk in patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 78, 613–617.

Barefoot, J. C., Peterson, B. L., Dahlstrom, W. G., Siegler, I. C., Anderson, N. B., 8z Williams, Jr., R. B. (1991). Hostility patterns and health implications: Correlates of Cook-Medley Hostility scale scores in a national survey. Health Psychology, lO(I), 18–24.

Barefoot, 3. C., & S&roll, M. (1997). Symptoms of depression, acute myocardial infarction and total mortality in a community sample. Circulation, 93, 1976–1980.

Blumenthal, J. A., Jiang, W., Babyak, M. A., Krantz, D. S., Frid, D. J., Coleman, R. E., Waugh, R., Hanson, M., Appelbaum, M., O'Conner, C., & Morris, J. J. (1997). Stress management and exercise training in cardiac patients with myocardial ischemia. Archives of Internal Medicine, 157, 22 13–2223.

Blumenthal, J. A., O'Connor, C., Hinderliter, A., Fath, K., Hegde, S. B., Miller, G., Puma, J., Sessions, W., Sheps, D., Zakhary, B., & Williams, R. B. (1997). Psychosocial factors and coronary disease. A National Multicenter Clinical Trial (ENRICHD) with a North Carolina focus. North Carolina Medical Journal, 58, 802–808.

Bosma, H., Peter, R., Siegrist, J., Br Marmot, M. (1998). Two alternative job stress models and the risk of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 6874.

Camey, R. M, Rich, M., develde, A., Saini, J., Clark, K., & Freedland, K. E. (1988). The relationship between heart rate, follow-up


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Handbook of Health Psychology
Table of contents

Table of contents



Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 962

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    New feature

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have dyslexia, and in an effort to make Questia easier to use for those people, we have added a new choice of font to the Reader. That font is called OpenDyslexic, and has been designed to help with some of the symptoms of dyslexia. For more information on this font, please visit OpenDyslexic.org.

    To use OpenDyslexic, choose it from the Typeface list in Font settings.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.