Handbook of Health Psychology

By Andrew Baum; Tracey A. Revenson et al. | Go to book overview
could be made accessible nationally to investigators who submit proposals to the senior multiethnic research team that maintains oversight.
6. Building on previous federal initiatives designed to increase the number of ethnic minority principal investigators, development of a RFA for three funding cycles within NIAID targeting basic genetic, immunologic, vaccine, and treatment research on racial/ethnic differences under the leadership of senior/tenured minority principal investigators.
7. Development of review guidelines for NIH review committees that address not only inclusion of minorities but the inclusion of specific scientific hypotheses that explore racial/ethnic differences in genetic and immunologic responses to HIV infection, disease progression/nonprogression, development, and clinical and drug treatment strategies and options.
Whereas leadership by the federal government is essential and necessary to accelerating the science of racial/ethnic differences in susceptibility for HIV infection, disease progression/nonprogression clinical and drug treatment strategies and options, there are others who can exert leadership in this domain. For example:
1. Medical journal editors should require that when minorities are participants in studies, evidence be provided that there are no differences from nonminorities if their data are not presented separately or in comparison to nonminorities or between ethnic groups. Analyses by racelethnicity should be required unless there is a statistical case for foregoing such procedures.
2. Researchers must take seriously the task of mastering the scientific literature on HIV in ethnic minorities in order to develop testable hypotheses that can advance the field on ethnic/racial differences in the cause and treatment of HIV infection and disease. Many investigators will find that increased attention to this body of data will not only assist in advancing science but better equip them to design racially/ethnic diverse studies and maintain study cohorts.

Finally, although the authors could envision a number of additional recommendations to urge HIV research or biomedical research on racial/ethnic differences, none is as compelling as urging mechanisms to ensure that scientific findings are translated into prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies that reach the community. Without creating mechanisms by which the findings actually reach and benefit the population being focused on, researchers lose credibility with the community and fail to achieve the fundamental purpose of science, that is, to improve the lives of others.


The terms, Black and African American, are often used interchangeably in the literature. Some present-day African Americans are descended from Africans brought to this country more than a 150 years ago. However over time there has been admixture in which African Americans share a mixed biological heritage with Native Americans, Whites, and other racially distinct populations. There are also a number of groups that within research studies are designated Black but maintain some genetic distinctions in their admixture from African Americans such as Haitians, Belizeans, or Black Puerto Ricans. In studies, the designation of Blacks or African Americans may vary in which biological heritage groups are included. Therefore, throughout this chapter the term adopted by the original author of the work being reviewed is used in order to remain true to their designation of the population.

This work was supported by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Institute on Allergy and Infectious Diseases (ROlMH42584, ROlMH44345, ROlAI382 16) and an NIMH Scientist Development Award (K21MH00878) to the third author. We thank Mary Carrington, Love11 Jones, David Carlisle, and Karol Watson for their assistance, although we assume all responsibility for the contents of the chapter.


Achord, A. P., Lewis, R. E., Brackin, M. N., Henderson, H., & Cruse, J. M. (1996). HIV-l disease association with HLA-DQ antigens in African Americans and Caucasians. Pathobiology, 64,204–208.

Achord, A. P., Lewis, R. E., Brackin, M. N., & Cruse, J. M. (1997). HLA-DQB 1 markers associated with human immunodeficiency virus Type I disease progression. Pclthobiology, 6.5, 210–215.

Adams, J. M. (1932). Some racial differences in blood pressures and morbidity in groups of White and colored workmen. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 184, 342–350.

Ahsan, C. H., Renwick, A. G., Waller, D. G., Challenor, V. F., George, C. F., & Amanullah, M. (1993). The influence of dose and ethnic origins on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 54(3), 329–338.

Alarif, L., Castro, O., Ofosu, M., Dunston, G., & Scott, R. B. (1986). HLA-B35 is associated with red cell alloimmunization in sickle cell disease. Clinical Immunology and Zmmunopathology, 38, 178–183.

Bourgoignie, J. J., Oritz-Interian, C., Green, D. F., & Roth, D. (1989). Race, a cofactor in HIV-I-associated nephropathy. Transplantation Proceedings, 6, 3899–3901.

Brackin, M. N., Lewis, R. E., Brackin, B. T., Achord, A., Henderson, H., Crawford, M., & Cruse, J. M. (1995). Progression of HIV infection is associated with HLA-DQ antigens in Caucasians and African Americans. Pathobiology,

Brown, C., Kline, R., Atibu, L., Francis, H., Ryder, R., & Quinn, T. C. (199 1). Prevalence of HIV-I p24 antigenemia in African and North American populations and correlation with clinical status. AIDS, 5, 89–92.

Brown, S. R., Lane, J. R., Wagner, K. F., Zhou, S., Chung, R., Ray, K. L., Blatt, S. P., & Burke, D. S. (1995). Rates of p24 antigenemia and viral isolation in comparable White and Black HIV-infected subjects. AIDS, 9, 325–328.

Burrell, D. E., Antignani, A., Goldwasser P., Mittman, N., Fein, P. A., Slater, P. A., Gan, A., & Avram, M. M. (1991). Lipid abnormailites in Black renal patients. Lipid, 91, 192–196.

Callender, C. O., & Dunston, G. M. (1987, February/March). Kidney transplantation: A dilemma for Black Americans. Renal Lijk, II.

response to drug

and responses to vaccine candidates and

62, 22–41.


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Handbook of Health Psychology
Table of contents

Table of contents



Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 962

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.