A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology

By R. L. Trask | Go to book overview

A

abbreviatory convention

n. Any notational convention which allows two or more distinct but seemingly related statements to be written as what appears to be a single statement by combining common elements. The object of such a convention is the conflation of related rules into a rule schema, thereby gaining economy by avoiding restatement. Among the conventions which have been widely used in phonology are braces, parentheses, angle brackets, mirror-image environments and the alpha notation. Analysts differ as to whether these conventions should be regarded as representations of an underlying reality or merely as descriptive conveniences with no theoretical standing.


abduction

n. The moving apart of the vocal folds. V. abduct. Ant. adduction.


ablaut

n. (alsovowel gradation, apophony) 1. A morphological process expressed by a change in the quality of a vowel within a root or stem for purely grammatical purposes, with the vowel alternation typically serving as the only exponent of the grammatical distinction. English examples include the inflectional patterns exhibited by 'strong' verbs like sing/sang/sung and write/wrote/written. The term is most usually applied to such phenomena in the older Indo-European languages, in which it was grammatically central: Latin tegō 'cover' but toga 'toga', Greek legō 'read' but logos 'word', Latin sedeō 'sit' but sodālis 'companion'; but it is also sometimes applied to similar phenomena in other languages. Ablaut differs from umlaut only in its historical source: originally, 'ablaut' was applied to cases of vowel alternation for which no phonetic motivation could be identified. See also e-grade, o-grade and zero grade. 2. A historical change by which such an alternation comes about. Coates (1994) recommends restricting 'ablaut' to sense 2 and using 'apophony' for sense 1. He also suggests the term 'consonantal apophony' for those instances of Celtic mutation in which no overt trigger is present.


abrupt release

n. (also instantaneous release, abrupt offset) 1. The phenomenon in which a complete oral closure is

-1-

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A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vi
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • Abbreviations xi
  • Guide to Pronunciation xii
  • A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology xiii
  • A 1
  • B 46
  • C 62
  • D 101
  • E 126
  • F 139
  • G 154
  • H 165
  • I 175
  • J 188
  • K 191
  • L 193
  • M 214
  • N 232
  • O 245
  • P 254
  • Q 298
  • R 299
  • S 316
  • T 350
  • U 365
  • V 371
  • W 385
  • X 391
  • Y 392
  • Z 393
  • Appendix: the International Phonetic Alphabet (Revised to 1993) 394
  • References 395
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