A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology

By R. L. Trask | Go to book overview

C

c

n. A symbol sometimes used to represent a consonant position in graphical presentations of syllable structure.


C

n. In phonology, the conventional cover symbol for any consonant, used in presenting canonical forms (as in the CV syllable structure) and in abbreviating phonological rules (as in C → / C C). Often this symbol is restricted to [-syllabic] segments, and hence excludes glides.


cacophony

n. Jarring, discordant, unharmonious sound or speech. Adj. cacophonous.


cacuminal

adj. [obsolete] See retroflex. Latin cacūmen 'point, top'.


cadence

n. 1. A rhythmic beat, as in verse or music. 2. A fall in the pitch of the voice at the end of an intonational phrase. 3. In some analyses of intonation, a binary distinctive feature in which [+cadence] indicates the presence of a fall. Old Italian cadenza
'a fall'; sense 3: Vanderslice and Ladefoged (1972).


caesura

n. (also cesura) 1. A pause or break within a line of verse, conventionally indicated by the symbol //, as in Pope's line To err is human, // to forgive, divine. 2. The presence of a word boundary within a metrical foot. Latin: 'a cutting'.


calque

/kælk/ n. (also loan translation) A lexical item or phrase which is borrowed from another language, not directly, but by translating the foreign item more or less literally, morpheme by morpheme. For example, Greek sympathia (literally, 'with-suffering') was calqued into Latin as compassiō (also literally 'with-suffering'), and this in turn was calqued into German as Mitleid (also literally 'withsuffering'). The entire French phrase il va sans dire has been calqued into English as it goes without saying. V.calque.


Canadian raising

n. The phenomenon, occurring in most Canadian and some American accents, by which the first element of the diphthongs /ai/ and /au/ is centralized ('raised') in specified circumstances. Most typically, such raising occurs when

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A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vi
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • Abbreviations xi
  • Guide to Pronunciation xii
  • A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology xiii
  • A 1
  • B 46
  • C 62
  • D 101
  • E 126
  • F 139
  • G 154
  • H 165
  • I 175
  • J 188
  • K 191
  • L 193
  • M 214
  • N 232
  • O 245
  • P 254
  • Q 298
  • R 299
  • S 316
  • T 350
  • U 365
  • V 371
  • W 385
  • X 391
  • Y 392
  • Z 393
  • Appendix: the International Phonetic Alphabet (Revised to 1993) 394
  • References 395
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