A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology

By R. L. Trask | Go to book overview

D

dactyl

n. 1. A metrical foot consisting of a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables, or, in quantitative verse, of a long syllable followed by two short ones. 2. A word illustrating this pattern, such as murmuring or capital. Adj. dactylic


damping

n. The absorption of energy from a sound wave by the medium carrying it, with consequent reduction in amplitude and blurring of resonance peaks. The soft tissues of the vocal tract are highly absorbent, and hence the speech wave is highly damped. Adj. damped.


dangling

adj. [rare] See floating.


dark

adj. An impressionistic label formerly applied to vowels characterized acoustically by a low second formant, such as [u]. Ant. bright.


dark l

n. A coronal lateral articulated with the back of the tongue raised towards the velum, represented by the IPA symbol [ł] Except in Ireland and Wales, where dark l is generally absent, English /l/ is almost universally realized as a dark l when not followed by a vowel; many Scottish and North American speakers use a dark l for /l/ in all positions. Cf. clear l.


dB

n. The abbreviation for decibel(s).


deactivation

(of a rule) n. See rule deactivation.


deafness

n. Partial or total loss of the ability to hear. Total deafness (anacusis) is not common, but varying degrees of hearing loss can be distinguished. Adj. deaf.


dearticulation

n. The total loss of a segment from a phonological form, often particularly as the final step in a historical process of lenition. For example, Proto-Indo-European *k was lenited in Proto-Germanic to *x, then further in English to h; the final step of dearticulating h to zero has occurred in many accents of England. Dearticulation is often accompanied by compensatory lengthening. Lass (1984:179).

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A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vi
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • Abbreviations xi
  • Guide to Pronunciation xii
  • A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology xiii
  • A 1
  • B 46
  • C 62
  • D 101
  • E 126
  • F 139
  • G 154
  • H 165
  • I 175
  • J 188
  • K 191
  • L 193
  • M 214
  • N 232
  • O 245
  • P 254
  • Q 298
  • R 299
  • S 316
  • T 350
  • U 365
  • V 371
  • W 385
  • X 391
  • Y 392
  • Z 393
  • Appendix: the International Phonetic Alphabet (Revised to 1993) 394
  • References 395
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