A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology

By R. L. Trask | Go to book overview

G

GA

n. See General American.


Garde's Principle

n. A widely accepted principle in historical phonology. It says: mergers are irreversible by linguistic means. See reversal of merger. Principle: Garde (1961); name: Labov (1994:311).


gating experiment

n. 1. An experimental technique in which subjects are given successively longer stretches of a word, in order to determine the earliest point at which it becomes recognizable. See Frauenfelder and Tyler (1987). 2. An experimental technique for investigating sound changes in progress by exposing listeners to advanced (innovating) pronunciations in isolation, in phrases and finally in complete sentences. Labov (1994:194, 214).


geminate

n. (also doubled consonant or doubled vowel) A sequence of two identical segments, especially consonants. Geminate consonants occur in English only at morpheme boundaries: nighttime, bookcase, solely, non-null. Long vowels in some languages are sometimes analysed as geminates, so that for example, might be analysed as /oo/. Adj. geminate or geminated


gemination

n. Any of various phonological processes in which a segment is converted into a geminate: Proto-Romance *sapja > Italian sappia 'would know'; Proto-Germanic *sitjan > *sittjan > Old English sittan 'sit'; Sanskrit patra- > pattra- 'leaf; Latin AQUA [akwa] 'water' > Italian acqua [akkwa]; Latin RE PUBLICA > Italian repubblica 'republic'. Sometimes the term is extended to instances of total assimilation like Latin NOCTE > Italian notte 'night'. Ant. degemination.


General American

n. (GA) The conventional label for the closely related speech varieties typical of the whole of the United States excluding the east coast and the south (that is, excluding the long-settled areas with distinctive and readily identifiable local accents). Krapp (1925).


generalization

n. A statement about the phonological facts of a language, or about the facts of languages

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A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vi
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • Abbreviations xi
  • Guide to Pronunciation xii
  • A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology xiii
  • A 1
  • B 46
  • C 62
  • D 101
  • E 126
  • F 139
  • G 154
  • H 165
  • I 175
  • J 188
  • K 191
  • L 193
  • M 214
  • N 232
  • O 245
  • P 254
  • Q 298
  • R 299
  • S 316
  • T 350
  • U 365
  • V 371
  • W 385
  • X 391
  • Y 392
  • Z 393
  • Appendix: the International Phonetic Alphabet (Revised to 1993) 394
  • References 395
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