A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology

By R. L. Trask | Go to book overview

H

hachek

n. (also wedge) The diacritic used in various orthographies and transcriptions for various purposes. Czech hacek 'little hook'.


half-close

adj. (of a vowel) An older synonym for highmid.


half-contrast

n. See near-merger.


half-open

n. (of a vowel) An older synonym for low-mid.


half-rhyme

n. (also imperfect rhyme, near rhyme, oblique rhyme, off rhyme, pararhyme, slant rhyme) The occurrence in rhyming position in verse of words which do not strictly rhyme in the conventional manner but which exhibit some kind of noticeable similarity of sound: made/stride, late/paid, crowd/road.


Halle's argument

/'hæli/ n. A famous argument advanced by Morris Halle (1959) against the phonological doctrines of the American Structuralists, most particularly against biuniqueness. Examining Russian, Halle pointed out that Russian obstruents occur in contrasting voiceless/voiced pairs, except for /ts/, /t∫/ and /x/, which have no voiced counterparts. A word-final obstruent is always voiceless, unless the following word begins with a voiced obstruent, in which case it is always voiced. In order to maintain biuniqueness, therefore, we must make the following statements. (1) No Russian lexical item ends in a voiced obstruent in its citation form. (2) When the following segment is a voiced obstruent, a final voiceless obstruent is replaced by its voiced counterpart (a morphophonemic statement), except for the three segments which have no voiced counterparts; the resulting level of representation is the required autonomous phonemic one. (3) A final voiceless obstruent has a voiced allophone before a voiced obstruent (an allophonic statement). This messy analysis conforms to biuniqueness, but it nowhere expresses the obvious generalizations about voicing, which can be readily stated if the autonomous phonemic level is dispensed with. Comparable facts had been noted before, of course, but it was Halle's argument that succeeded in convincing a generation of

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A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vi
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • Abbreviations xi
  • Guide to Pronunciation xii
  • A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology xiii
  • A 1
  • B 46
  • C 62
  • D 101
  • E 126
  • F 139
  • G 154
  • H 165
  • I 175
  • J 188
  • K 191
  • L 193
  • M 214
  • N 232
  • O 245
  • P 254
  • Q 298
  • R 299
  • S 316
  • T 350
  • U 365
  • V 371
  • W 385
  • X 391
  • Y 392
  • Z 393
  • Appendix: the International Phonetic Alphabet (Revised to 1993) 394
  • References 395
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