A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology

By R. L. Trask | Go to book overview

T

tail

/teil/ n. In some analyses of intonation, any syllables that come between the nuclear syllable and the end of the tone unit. In English, the tail always continues the final pitch direction of the nucleus.


tailed

n /teild en/ n. See eng.


talking drums

/'drAmz/ n. A system of transmitting speech using drums whose pitch can be changed at will; linguistic pitch and rhythm can be represented so effectively that messages can be understood even in the absence of segmental information.


tamber

n. See timbre. According to Jones (1950), invented by the poet Robert Bridges.


tap

/tæp/ n. 1. A segment in whose articulation the moving articulator is moved rapidly from its rest position so as to lightly strike a second, stationary articulator and is then returned to its starting position. The most familiar tap is the alveolar tap [r], as in Spanish pero 'but' and in a typical American pronunciation of Betty. A tap is sometimes regarded as the limiting case of a trill, with only a single vibration, but this is phonetically dubious, since the Bernoulli effect plays no part in producing a tap. See Laver (1994:224-227) for a survey. Cf. flap. NOTE: Those who, like Laver (1994), prefer to regard taps as stops, use the term 'tapped stop' for what is more usually just called a 'tap'. 2. In the Ladefoged feature system, a distinctive feature somewhat hesitantly proposed to distinguish taps (and flaps?) ([+tap]) from all other segments ([-tap]) and partly replacing Ladefoged's earlier feature of rate. In the Williamson feature system, the same work is done by the feature posture.


tapped fricative

/tæpt/ n. A segment articulated like a tap except that the maximum constriction is not a complete closure, but only a constriction sufficient to produce frication. The Nigerian language Etsako has a phonemic voiceless tapped alveolar fricative, and some American speakers use a similar sound as their realization of intervocalic /t/, as in city.


tapping

n. 1. The articulation of a tap. 2. (also flapping) The phenomenon, occurring in many varieties of English, in which

-350-

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A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vi
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • Abbreviations xi
  • Guide to Pronunciation xii
  • A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology xiii
  • A 1
  • B 46
  • C 62
  • D 101
  • E 126
  • F 139
  • G 154
  • H 165
  • I 175
  • J 188
  • K 191
  • L 193
  • M 214
  • N 232
  • O 245
  • P 254
  • Q 298
  • R 299
  • S 316
  • T 350
  • U 365
  • V 371
  • W 385
  • X 391
  • Y 392
  • Z 393
  • Appendix: the International Phonetic Alphabet (Revised to 1993) 394
  • References 395
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