This book has been written as an introduction to the changes that have taken place in viticulture and the wine trade since prehistoric times. It is also, more specifically, an historical geography of viticulture, consciously seeking to blend together an understanding of processes of social and economic change in particular places and at particular times. As such, it builds on a tradition represented by the French historical geographer, Roger Dion, and developed by such scholars as Marc Bloch and Fernand Braudel. I owe much to their style of writing, and their grasp of the complexities of such changes.
In any undertaking such as this, that crosses traditional disciplinary boundaries of scholarship, many debts are incurred. My first encounters with landscapes of the vine, and with the fruits of its cultivation, were as an eager participant on family holidays, and for these as well as for their continuing encouragement I am deeply indebted to my parents. My academic interest in viticulture began in 1974, and it is with pleasure that I recall the journey of exploration through the vineyards of Europe undertaken with John Candler in the summer of that year. Since then, countless wine makers and people within the wine trade have offered me something of their knowledge, and it is with particular gratitude that I record the help and assistance offered to me in this respect by John and Janet Burnett, Louis Bouzereau-Bachelet, Maria Cálem, Jean-François Cholet, and Blandine and François Rocault. Numerous colleagues throughout the world have offered useful guidance, and have pointed me in directions that I would not otherwise have explored, and among them I am particularly appreciative of advice given by Stephanie Besse, Peter Credland, Felix Driver, Julian Jeffs, James Lapsley, Fergus Kelly, Edmond Maudière, Alberto Melleli, Anngret Simms, Kenneth Stevenson, Bruce Tiffney and Paul Tweddle. The following have very kindly read various parts of the manuscript and have contributed greatly to my own understanding of the subject through their perceptive comments and wise suggestions: David Baverstock, Dick Bowes, Jasper Morris, Hazel Murphy, Hans-Jürgen Nitz, Jancis Robinson, and Iain Stevenson. For